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ME364_various_polymers - 4 PROCESSING OF VARIOUS MATERIALS...

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CHAPTER CONTENTS 45 PROCESSING OF VARIOUS MATERIALS 4 4.1 Shaping Processes for Polymers Polymers Manufacturing Processes for Polymers 4.2 Rubber Processing Technology Introduction Processing of rubber into finished good 4.3 Processing of Ceramics Introduction Processing of Traditional Ceramics Processing of New Ceramics 4.4 Glassworking Introduction Process Sequence in Glassworking Shaping Processes 4.5 Composite Materials Introduction Starting Materials Shaping Processes Polymers A polymer is a compound consisting of long-chaim molecules, each molecule made up pf repeating units connected together. Polymers can be separated into three major groups: Thermoplastic polymers ( thermoplastics ) Thermosetting polymers ( thermosets ) Elastomers ( rubbers ) Thermoplastic polymers (thermoplastics) Solid materials at room temperature, become viscous liquids when heated. The most important thermoplastics are: v Acrylics ( Plexiglas ): lenses, window glazing v Fluorocarbons ( Teflon ): nonstick coatings, bearings, seals v Polyamides ( Nylons, Kevlar ): fibers v Polycarbonates ( Lexan ): helmets, bullet-resistance windows, wind-shields v Polyesters ( Dacron, Mylar, Kodel ): gears, cams, rollers v Polyvinyl chloride ( PVC ): pipes, cable insulation, packaging, flooring, toys v Polyethylene: bottles, cans, packaging materials Thermosetting polymers (thermosets) When initially heated, soften and flow for molding. After cooling, harden into an infusible solid. No repeated heating cycle is possible. The most important thermosets are: v Epoxies: fiber-reinforced materials v Phenolics ( Bakelite ): knobs, handles, cases v Polyesters: fiber-reinforced materials v Silicones: waterproof and heat resistance materials SHAPING PROCESSES FOR POLYMERS
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