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PSYCH 101 FINAL notes - Personality I Introduction A...

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Personality 03/12/2007 18:34:00 I. Introduction A. Personality as a concept B. What behaviors are important in judging personality? II. Measurement A. General ways to measure personality B. Personality Tests o Not impressive. The personality that was said was broad and general. Two approaches to creating object personality tests  o Rational (“armchair”) approach o Empirical approach Introversion o Retiring o Reserved o Like solitary activities  o Does not attend parties Extroversion o Outgoing and talkative o Wants many friends o Enjoys parties
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o Dislike solitary activities o Dominates social situation  Reliability in personally measures : “scale” Test-Retest: Are scores on the measure stable over time? Internal Consistency: Do all of the items on the measure seem to be measuring  the same thing, as indicated by high correlations among them? Inter-observer: do different raters or scorers agree on their scoring or  observation Validity: the “truthfulness” of a measure Does a “test” really measure the concept that it claims to measure? o 1. Predictive Validity:  Can test scores accurately predict future behavior? Face: do the items or questions appear relevant to the construct on rational  grounds Content Criterion-related Construct Barnum Effect: A person is given a general description (of personality) that is  true of most people but believes it is unique to him/her. III. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: A. Basic Concepts:  o 1. Behavior is influenced by unconscious factors. (motives, desires,  conflicts) o 2. Dreams have psychological meaning. 
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o 3. Dreams reflect unconscious wishes and conflicts  o 4. Our basic personality characteristics are largely formed in childhood. o 5. Painful or traumatic experiences can be repressed from memory. B. Structure of Personality o ID: Entirely in the unconscious mind Only structure present at birth Governed by pleasure principle Immediate gratification of needs Source of all psychological energy (psychic energy) o EGO: Preconscious censory deals with the demands of reality/everyday life The “rational” component of personality Governed by the REALITY PRINCIPLE o SUPEREGO: Unconscious Pre-conscious  the last component of personality to emerge The “moral” component of personality Governed by the MORALITY PRINCIPLE o ID    Ego     SUPEREGO o ID --conflict---  SUPEREGO C. Development of Personality o Freud’s Psychosexual Stages:
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Stage Focus Oral (0-18 months) Pleasure centers on  the mouth : sucking,  biting, chewing Anal (18-36  months) Pleasure focuses  on bowel/bladder 
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