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ES (Chapter 7-10 Soil Notes)

ES (Chapter 7-10 Soil Notes) - weathered rock Bedrock lies...

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Soil Notes I. Soil formation A. 100-1000 years = 1 cm of soil B. Factors affecting soil formation 1. Parent material type 2. Climatic factors a. Temperature changes increase soil production b. Moisture speeds up soil production 3. Topography a. Slopes = little soil b. Flat areas = thicker soils 4. Plant & Animal Life a. Tunnels increase weathering and soil formation. b. Humus – dead plant & animal matter. 5. Time (More time = more soil) II. Soil Composition A. 80% or more is weathered rock B. 20% or less organic matter (HUMUS) C. Soil profiles show soil develops in layers called HORIZONS. 1. A Horizon (Topsoil) – humus & small amount of clay & sand. Contains plant roots. 2. B Horizon – coarse clay, sand, and small amounts of humus & leached materials dissolved in water. 3. C Horizon – thick layer of partially
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Unformatted text preview: weathered rock. Bedrock lies beneath it. D. Cold climates have poorly developed soils (Frozen constantly) E. Humid, tropical climates have thick soils. (High temperature & precipitation; lots of leaching.) F. Temperate climates have thick soils but less leaching. (Most fertile) III. Land Use A. 13% can be farmed. Why? 1. Too rocky 2. Poor soil 3. Bad climate for crops 4. Nutrients get used up quickly; Fertilizers are needed. (expensive & can be poisonous!) 5. Rocky or hilly areas used for other things. a. Grazing b. Lumber (heat, fuel, building materials) B. How can land use be managed? 1. Planting legumes ( peas, beans, clover, peanuts) adds nutrients to soil. 2. Contour soil to reduce erosion 3. Minimun till farming reduces wind erosion....
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