H102 Lecture 04_ The Gilded Age and the Politics of Corruption

H102 Lecture 04_ The Gilded Age and the Politics of Corruption

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Unformatted text preview: 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 04: The Gilded Age and the Politics of Corruption S an le K. Sch l , P o fe o o f Hi o W illiam P. Ti h le , P o d ce Lec re 04 The Gilded Age and the Politics of Corruption Th e e m " Th e Gild ed A g e" co me f o m a n o el o f h e ame n ame p b li h ed in 1873 b M a k T ain an d Ch a le D d le W a n e , h ich , h o g h fic io n al, i a c i ical e amin a io n o f p o li ic an d co p io n in h e Un i ed S a e d in g h e n in e een h cen . Th i lec e e p lo e h o amp an eco n o mic an d p o li ical co p io n co lo ed A me ican o cie an d c l e d in g h e Gild ed A g e. S ome ques tions to k eep in mind: 1 . How did the federal g overnment trans form the American econom during the Gilded Ag e? 2 . Wh was corruption s o rampant in American politics during this period? Was it wors e than toda ? If s o, wh ? 3 . Was there reall an difference between the Republican and Democratic parties at this time? If s o, what? The Gilded Age: A Tale of Toda (1873) A n o el b M a k T ain an d Ch a le D d le W a n e , h ich e p lo e p o li ical an d eco n o mic co p io n in h e Un i ed S a e . Th e cen al ch a ac e , Co lo n el Be iah Selle an d Sen a o A b n e Dil o h , a e ied o g e h e in a g o e n men ail o ad b ib e ch eme. T ain an d W a n e d ep ic an A me ican o cie h a , d e p i e i ap p ea an ce o f p o mi e an d p o p e i , i id d led i h co p io n an d can d al. us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture04.html 1/8 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 04: The Gilded Age and the Politics of Corruption Mark T ain S M L C T (1835- 1910), A ' H ,M , , .B M - R .C , A . Sam el Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910) C 1997 S H S W T o general themes caused tensio n during the Gilded Age: 1. L - " 1: ." S : Web ster's Nin th New Co lleg ia te Dictio n a r (1990). 2. C - , , .G , .M , , , I , / . The Homestead Act TH W, A (M 20, 1862) .B C , . T , .I , , 1850 , .A H 1858 P .A A , R .T H J B ( 160 .I ' C $1.25 , . W, , .B ; E .A us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture04.html ; , 1862 ) B S R . I 1860, , M , .T , , H A A 2/8 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 04: The Gilded Age and the Politics of Corruption S :H . C , Th e Rea d er's Co mp a n io n to America n Histo r (1991). M T an po a ion Re ol ion "...R , .U , , , .I , , , . E Earl view of the Illinois Central Railroad C 1997 S H S W . B 1840, U S ; 1860, ' ..." S :G R T , Th e Tra n sp o rta tio n Revo lu tio n , 1815-1860 (1962). us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture04.html 3/8 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 04: The Gilded Age and the Politics of Corruption Green Ba -W es tern loc omotive #15, c irc a 1879 C op igh 1997 S a e Hi o ical S ocie of W i con in Pacific Railwa Acts, 1862, 1864 The fede al go e nmen pa ed he Pacific Rail a Ac of 1862 and 1864 af e he So h eceded f om he Union. The ac enabled he Uni ed S a e go e nmen o make a di ec g an of p blic land o p i a e co po a ion fo he con c ion of a an - con inen al ail oad em. Fo e e mile of ack laid, he go e nmen o ld g an o p i a e ail oad co po a ion 20 ec ion of p blic land (12,800 ac e ) hich he co po a ion co ld do i h a i a fi . The fede al go e nmen al o g a an eed pa men of $48,000 fo e e mile of ack con c ed in mo n aino e ain and p omi ed a 30 ea b idi ed loan a belo - ma ke in e e a e . The Union Pacific Rail oad, b il We f om he Mi o i Ri e , me he Cen al Pacific Rail oad, hich e ended Ea f om Sac amen o, Califo nia. The o ail oad gian me a P omon o Poin , U ah, in he p ing of 1869. B 1890, in e o de eloped fi e mo e an - con inen al line . Credit Mobilier "The C edi Mobilie candal of 1872- 1873 damaged he ca ee of e e al Gilded Age poli ician . Majo ockholde in he Union Pacific Rail oad fo med a compan , he C edi Mobilie of Ame ica, and ga e i con ac o b ild he ail oad. The old o ga e ha e in hi con c ion o infl en ial cong e men. I a a l c a i e deal fo he cong e men, beca e he helped hem el e b app o ing fede al b idie fo he co of ail oad con c ion i ho pa ing m ch a en ion o e pen e , enabling ail oad b ilde o make h ge p ofi . When he Ne Yo k S n b oke he o on he e e of he 1872 elec ion, Speake of he Ho e Jame G. Blaine, a Maine Rep blican implica ed in he candal, e p a cong e ional commi ee o in e iga e." So ce: Th e Rea d er's Co mp a n io n to America n Histo r (1991) us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture04.html 4/8 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 04: The Gilded Age and the Politics of Corruption James A. Garfield (1831 - 1881) A Re b ica a eade d i g he i e ee h ce h e ed a e ide i 1881. Hi ec d a a ed b hi h d acce a ce f a fee i he DeG e a i g c ac ca e a d b ici f hi c ici i he C edi M bi ie ca da . Ga fie d a a a i a ed af e a fe h i ffice b Cha e J. G i ea , a di a i ed ffice ee e , J 2, 1881. J ame A. Ga field (1831-1881) C igh 1997 S a e Hi ica S cie f Wi c i "The Blood Shirt" I he ea f i g he Ci i Wa , b h he De c a ic a d Re b ica a ie e e e a beh de ecia i e e . F he e, ei he a c d gai c f A e ica g e e . O he e ha d, Re b ica d i a ed he e ide c , i i g e e e ide ia e ec i be ee 1868- 1912, i e ed b he De c a ic ad i i a i f G e C e e a d. De c a , he he ha d, c ed C g e a d a e egi a e . Each a h gg ed fi d i ica ie di i g i h i f he he a d ei e g e e e.F 1868 1880, he c Re b ica ca aig ac ic a a e he "B d Shi " e i d e f he S h' di h f ecedi g a d ca i g he Ci i Wa . Thi ac ic ai ed a De c a a ai he U i . Robert Green Ingersoll (1833- 1899) B i Ne Y , I ge a a ec e , a e , a d i icia . He bega a a De c a , b a e i ched hi a egia ce he Re b ica Pa f I i i . Hi fa add e a hi i a i g eech f Ja e G. B ai e i 1876, i hich he d bbed B ai e he "P ed K igh ." us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture04.html 5/8 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 04: The Gilded Age and the Politics of Corruption J ames G. Blaine, the "Plumed Knight", Harper's c over art b Thomas Nas t C op right 1997 S tate Historical S ociet of W isconsin Ul sses S. Grant A general and a political leader during and after the Civil War. He served as commanding general of the Union arm and as president from 1869 to 1877. While Grant, a Republican, was president, economic and political corruption ran rampant. Man historians, in fact, judge Grant's presidenc as perhaps the most corrupt in American Histor . Ul s s es S. Grant (1822-1885) us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture04.html 6/8 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 04: The Gilded Age and the Politics of Corruption C op right 1997 S tate Historical S ociet of W isconsin James Gillespie Blaine (1830- 1893) One of the most powerful men in the Republican part during the 1870s and 1880s. A member of the United States House of Representatives from 1862- 1876, he served as speaker from 1868 until he resigned to seek the Republican nomination for president. He failed to receive the nomination in both 1876 and 1880 but was the Republican candidate in 1886, onl narrowl defeated b Grover Cleveland. J ame Gille pie Blaine, he "Pl med Knigh " (1830-1893) C op right 1997 S tate Historical S ociet of W isconsin Mg mps Mugwumps were those Republicans who, refusing to support Blaine in the presidential campaign of 1884, bolted the part and voted for Cleveland. The word, from the Algonquian "mugwomp," was used in John Eliot's translation of the Bible to render the English term "caption." It was later applied in United States political slang to an independent voter. So u rce: Th e O fo rd Co mp a n io n to America n Histo r (1966) Gro er Cle eland Cleveland was born in Caldwell, New Jerse , on March 18, 1837. He was admitted to the bar in Buffalo, New York, in 1859, and lived there as a law er and became active in Democratic politics. He did not participate in the Civil War. As ma or of Buffalo in 1881, he carried through a reform program so abl that the Democrats ran him successfull for governor in 1882. In 1884 he won the Democratic nomination for President. G o e Cle eland (1837-1908) C op right 1997 S tate Historical S ociet of W isconsin us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture04.html 7/8 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 04: The Gilded Age and the Politics of Corruption The campaign contrasted Cleveland's spotless public career with the uncertain record of James G. Blaine, the Republican candidate, and Cleveland received enough Mugwump (independent Republican) support to win. As president, Cleveland pushed civil service reform, opposed the pension grab and attacked the high tariff rates. While in the White House, he married Frances Folsom in 1886. Renominated in 1888, Cleveland was defeated by Benjamin Harrison, polling more popular but fewer electoral votes. In 1892, he was elected over Harrison. When the Panic of 1893 burst upon the country, Cleveland's attempts to solve it by sound- money measures alienated the free- silver wing of the party, while his tariff policy alienated the protectionists. In 1894, he sent troops to break the Pullman strike. In foreign affairs, his firmness caused Great Britain to back down in the Venezuelan border dispute. In his last years Cleveland was an active and much- respected public figure. He died in Princeton, N.J., on June 24, 1908. So u rce: Ho u g h to n M ifflin Co , Th e Rea d er's Co mp a n io n to America n Histo r (1991). Money may or may not be the root of all evil, but it certainly played a major role in the politics of the Gilded Age. Of course, this money did not appear out of thin air. Instead, the rise of the corporation drove Gilded Age prosperity. The rise of American corporations during the second half of the nineteenth century is an incredibly fascinating subject. So fascinating, in fact, that it is the focus of our next lecture: Lecture 05: Businessmen and "That Creature" the Corporation. Lecture 04 Rela ed Web Link Content Presentation Audience Link Colle ge "Uniting Mugw um ps a nd the Ma sse s: Puck's Role in Gilde d Age Politics," by Da n Ba cke r Colle ge The Hom e ste a d Act Colle ge Ma rk Tw a in Colle ge "The Gilde d Age : A Ta le of Toda y" by Ma rk Tw a in a nd Cha rle s Dudle y W a rne r Colle ge The Gilde d (P)a ge High School U.S. House Ethics Ma nua l Colle ge Gotha m Com e s of Age Colle ge Info Ulysse s S. Gra nt Hom e Pa ge Skip Dire ctly To Le cture : || 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 || || 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 || || 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 || Home Cours e Guide Bios Photos Exams Calendar Comments /S ig n-in 1999 Bo ard o f Reg en ts o f th e Un iv ers ity o f W is co n s in Sy s tem us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture04.html 8/8 ...
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