H102 Lecture 19_ The Great Depression and the New Deal

H102 Lecture 19_ The Great Depression and the New Deal -...

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Unformatted text preview: 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 19: The Great Depression and the New Deal S a e K. Sch , P fe f Hi W i ia P. Ti h e , P d ce Lec re 19 Libe a i Th e a ch be Fa i De e S : The Ne Dea c a e c a h f 1929 a a i d ica i f e i , de i g b e i h e U i ed S a e ec ,b i h e e ca e f h e G ea De e i . Th e C a h e e ad e h e c ac i A e ica' e ficia ei e b i . A d , i ce h e ca e f h e ec ic c i e e e c e , he i h e ec ic faci g h e U i ed S a e d be c ica ed a e . Th i ec e e a i e h e fi fe ea f P e id e D. R e e ' ad i i a i , h e Ne Dea , a d h e fed e a g e e 'ae if A e ica f he i. e 1. 2. 3. 4. a High N ei ee i i d: Wha e did he e a di ib i f ea h a i ai i g he De e i ? Wha ech i e did FDR e b hi a i ? Wa he cce f ? C a e H e ' hi h fg e e FDR' . We e he e a a ie diffe e ce ? E ai he c ce f " he b e a e." H did FDR g ab d i g he d ie f a de C ac i he Ec ic F e ide ? da i A f e h e G ea C a h , h e A e ica b ic g h a ca eg a f h e ec ic c a e. S e h e d P e id e H ee ib e, h e a g e ed h e " h ee B' " --b e , b a e , a d b i e e . B h e ca e f h e G ea De e i c d b e a ib ed e i d i id a e e ag f e e . Th e f h e G ea De e i e e i he e c e f h e A e ica ec ,ae: 1. U e a di ib i f ea h a d i c e. De i e i i g ag e e a , i c e d i ib i a e a . Ga i i c e h ad ac a i c ea ed i ce h e 1890 . Th e 1% f h e a i a he e f he a id h ad i c e 650% g ea e h a h e 11% f A e ica a he b f he a id . Th e e e d c ce a i f ea h i h e h a d f a fe ea h a c i ed ec ic ei a de e de h e h ig h i e e a d e d i g f h e ea h . H e e , b h h e h ig h e d i g a d h ig h i e e f h e i e, ch i e d a , e e ce ib e ec ic f c a i ; h e e e ch e ab e h a e e' e e e d ai ece i ie i e f d , c h i g , a d h e e . Th e ef e, h e h e a e c a h ed a d h e ec b ed , b h b ig e d i g a d b ig i e e c a ed , a e . us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture19.html 1/7 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 19: The Great Depression and the New Deal Famil lives on pub lic relief funds (1936) C 1997 S H S W 2 . Unequal dis tribution of corporate power. F S 1870 , W W I, .D U G A .T ' C E . I 1929, , 50% . S : Trus t - A , , . Holding compan - A . .D 1920 , 3 . Bad bank ing s tructure. I 1920 , , - .B .A 1923 1929, , .Y , 1929, ' A . 4 . Foreig n balance of pa ments . W W .T B H H U I U A R .I C P U 1920 1920 , U , , , -S S S S , , , S (1930) : us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture19.html ' ' . . U A , S .R L 15 .T ' , A . 2/7 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 19: The Great Depression and the New Deal 5 . Limited or poor s tate of economic intellig ence. M o A me ican eco n o mi an d p o li ical lead e in 1929 ill b elie ed in lai e -fai e an d h e elf- eg la in g eco n o m . To h elp h e eco n o m alo n g in i elf-ad j men , P e id en Ho o e a ked b in e e o o l n a il h o ld d o n p o d c io n an d in c ea e emp lo men , b b in e e co ld n ' keep p h ig h emp lo men fo lo n g h en h e e en ' ellin g g o o d . Th e e a a id e p ead b elief h a if h e fed e al b d g e e e b alan ced , h e eco n o m o ld b o n ce b ack. To b alan ce h e b d g e d eman d ed n o f h e a c (al h o g h Ho o e lo e ed a e ) an d n o in c ea e in g o e n men p en d in g , h ich a d i a o in lig h o f i in g n emp lo men an d fallin g p ice . A n o h e p o b lem i h eco n o mic p ac ice o f h e d a a h e co mmi men o f h e Ho o e ad min i a io n o emain o n h e in e n a io n al g o ld an d a d . M an an al imp lo ed Ho o e o in c ea e h e mo n e p p l an d o d e al e h e d o lla b p in in g p ap e mo n e n o b acked b g o ld , b h e p e id en ef ed . Go in g o ff h e g o ld an d a d a o n e o f Ro o e el ' fi ac io n h en h e en e ed h e W h i e Ho e in 1933. Franklin De lano Roose e lt F anklin D. Roo e el (1882- 1945) a P e iden of he Uni ed S a e f om 1933 o 1945, he onl P e iden o be eelec ed h ee ime . A Go e no of Ne Yo k (19291932), he an fo P e iden b p omi ing a "Ne Deal" fo he Ame ican people. Relief p og am , mea e o inc ea e emplo men and o aid ind ial and ag ic l al eco e f om he G ea Dep e ion, ma ked Roo e el ' ime in office. Ame ican ho li ed h o gh he Dep e ion had pa iona e feeling abo Roo e el . He ha been bo h ene a ed a a na ional a io and ilified a a ociali ho c a ed g ea e fede al po e . Acco ding o adio jo nali Daniel Scho , ho en o college i h he help of a Ne Deal p og am: Frank lin Delano Roos e elt (1882-1945) C op igh 1997 S a e Hi o ical S ocie of W i con in " I i m co n en io n h a n o o n e h o ld b e allo ed o i e ab o FDR h o d id n o e p e ien ce h a e a. I eall i o n e o f h o e ca e o f o h ad o b e h e e. Ro o e el ma b e a m h ... o d a , b 60 ea ag o h a m h lo o ked mo e like h o p e. In h i fi e id e ch a , h e n ed o Ph ilco ad io in o h in e , an d h en h e aid h a A me ica co ld n o affo d o li e i h o n e- h i d o f a n a io n ill-h o ed an d ill-fed , e h o g h h e o ld d o o me h in g ab o i . A n d h e d id " (Dan iel Sch o , " Th e FDR 'M h ': Yo Had To Be Th e e," Ch i ia n S cien ce Mo n i o , 25 Oc o b e 1996, 19). us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture19.html 3/7 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 19: The Great Depression and the New Deal Eleanor Roos e elt (1884-1962) C Th e e id e ia ca aig igh 1997 S a e Hi f 1932 a ee ica S cie aca h f f Wi c e a i ie . P e id e "T hi ca aig i e ha a c e be ee be ee a ie . I i a c e be ee F e, h e ( h ich h ad he i e f i H e .I i hi hie ca d id a e d i ag eed P h ib i i , R e e ad ca i g a e ea a ed h e a fac e a d a e f a c h i ce 1919). B P h ib i i e e a d he e f g e e i aid i g h e ec . e hi e f aid : e ha a c e fg e e ." f h e Eig h ee h A e d e a a aec a ed What the ---- did FDR Stand For? S P P g ad b ic e i ed ed ce fed e a e e i ed b a a ce h e b d g e e R e e d id e ai h he g e e c d b h aid h e b ic a d b a a ce i b hi e e a i g a ed ced b d g e , b h e A e ica b ic ed h i . O E ec i Da i 1932, 57.4% f h e e ec a e ed f R e e ( , e ha e acc a e , ca h ei b a ag ai H e ). Ho FDR de fine d hims e lf: De c a i h a ca i a D Ch i ia i h a ca i a C Wi ia i i e a i a affai Ge e a R ee a c i ed b ei g e - i ed a i g ad i b i g h i e ag e h e A e ica de d hi i iai a a a f id ea , aff. Th i -ca ed " B ai T " i c d ed ch M H e C eg e i 1902 a d a h e fi fe d g e i g ah ead . He a ch a i g a d e cce f i b ic, a i g h i h e fi de ed ia P e id e . FDR a h e ch e e - a ified i e ec a a d b i e e e f hi i a ie a Lab Sec e a F a ce Pe i , h g ad a ed f a e cab i e e b e i U i ed S a e h i . Li e h i d i a e c i , Th e d e R us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture19.html e e , FDR ha he b ic da d d acce . FDR a a 4/7 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 19: The Great Depression and the New Deal , "B T .H ," ' 47 -- N 48 FDR C B ," FDR " , " . FDR ," .O H FDR' -- .B , 5,000 .S .I , .M , .N , , , , , , , , A .M A ,R . The Firs t Hundre d Da s A D ,R C N .H "H , C , D ." R , .M " AAA (Ag ricultural Adjus tment Act)--D , AAA S C AAA " . A .T U S . CCC (Civilian Cons ervation Corps )--A , , , R , . T CCC .T W W II. W D 'L . , , , , ' CCC; S P . TVA (Tennes s ee Valle Authorit )--O N T .A TVA D TVA A , . NIRA (National Indus trial Recover Act)--T , .I , R , NIRA A .T NRA (N R , , A ) , - .S NIRA .T H -A , , A 7A NIRA D , . "It's purchas ing power, s tupid." or Wh the NIRA failed. W , 1. T NIRA : NRA .T , , .T . 2. C .B , 3. T ' NRA . .I , us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture19.html A 5/7 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 19: The Great Depression and the New Deal p u rch as e g o o d s . W ith in two y ears , th e Su p reme Co u rt d eclared th e NIRA u n co n s titu tio n al. "The Broke r State " Du rin g h is firs t two y ears in o ffice, FDR p ro mo ted a n ew v is io n o f th e execu tiv e b ran ch ; h e v iewed h ims elf as an " h o n es t b ro ker" wh o wo u ld n eg o tiate amo n g co mp etin g in teres ts . Th e p res id en t wo u ld med iate co n flicts wh ile b alan cin g th e in teres ts o f o n e g ro u p ag ain s t an o th er. His o ld er co u s in TR h ad h eld a s imilar id ea o f th e p res id en cy , b u t FDR exp an d ed th is co n cep t o f th e b ro ker s tate. Ho wev er, th e id ea o f th e b ro ker s tate h as two in h eren t flaws : 1. Pres id en ts ten d to g et weaker th e lo n g er th ey are in o ffice, b ecau s e th ey h av e to make to u g h ch o ices th at alien ate p articu lar in teres t g ro u p s . 2. Th e s tro n g es t in teres t g ro u p s can p res s u re ev en th e mo s t fo rcefu l b ro ker. Th is was tru e in FDR's ad min is tratio n , wh en th e NIRA an d A A A fav o red b ig b u s in es s an d b ig ag ricu ltu re. The Ne w De al Ultimately , we can ro u g h ly d iv id e Ro o s ev elt's y ears in o ffice in th e 1930s in to two p erio d s : 1. Th e Firs t New Deal (1933-1935) was ch aracterized b y elief o f th e immed iate p ro b lems o f u n emp lo y men t. 2. Th e Seco n d New Deal (1935-1937) was ch aracterized b y efo m. In creas in g ly , memb ers o f Co n g res s an d o th ers called fo r fu n d amen tal refo rm o f s o ciety , n o t ju s t relief o f th e s y mp to ms o f s o cial an d eco n o mic p ro b lems . W h at was th e Seco n d New Deal ab o u t? W h o fo rmed its p o licies ? Did eith er o f th o s e New Deals s o lv e th e p ro b lems o f th e Dep res s io n ? Th es e are tan talizin g ly imp o rtan t q u es tio n s . So imp o rtan t, in fact, th at we'll take th em u p in Lectu re 20: " Dr. New Deal Beco mes Dr. W in -th e-W ar." Lecture 19 Rela ed Web Link Content Presentation Audience Link Info Colle ge FDR's Fire side Cha t on Re orga niz a tion of the Judicia ry High School Ne w De a l Ne tw ork Colle ge Addre ss of the Pre side nt De live re d by Ra dio from the W hite House , April 28, 1935 High School Studs Te rke l - Re cordings from Ha d Tim e Skip Dire ctly To Le cture : 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Home Cours e Guide Bios Photos Exams Calendar Comments /S ig n-in us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture19.html 6/7 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 19: The Great Depression and the New Deal 1999 Bo ard o f Reg en ts o f th e Un iv ers ity o f W is co n s in Sy s tem us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture19.html 7/7 ...
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