H102 Lecture 21_ World War II_ The Home Front

H102 Lecture 21_ World War II_ The Home Front - 12/22/11...

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Unformatted text preview: 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 21: World War II: The Home Front S a e K. Sch , P fe f Hi W i ia P. Ti h e , P d ce Lec re 21 W d Wa II: The I ac a H e Th e ic fa f F a ce h e Ge a a i 1940 h he g acifi e i e f h e A e ica b ic. S d d e , G ea B i ai a e d b e ee Na i Ge a a d h e U i ed S a e . O ce h e U i ed S a e a f c i ed h e a i Dece b e f 1941, a i i a ed i A e ica cie . A e ica ' i i g e ca b ac a d ci i d efe e d i ; ec c e e a , a e , a d e e c i g fa ; ge h ,b ha e fe e c eg d b i h h ei a a ie d e a ed h e a i ' g f h e a . Th e e e e i ica ch a g e a e , a h e c b eg a h if h e ig h . Th i ec e e a i e h e d e ic id e f W d W a II a d h e ch a g e h a ace i A e ica cie d i g h e a . S e ei ee i i d: 1. H did A e ica i e e i WWII affec he i ica a i de f ibe a ? C e a i e ? 2. H did he a i ' a ici a i i WWII i ac he A e ica ec i he h e ? Wha ab a i g ec 3. C 4. C ic i ac f he a ? a e a dc a a e he g h f he "i fif h c i ,F a ad i i ai he a ' effec iR e ia A e i ca e ide c " i e e . Wha fac he ad i i i b ed ai he g f Tedd R e e a d ha f hi h f e ec i e a h i i he ? 5. Wha effec did A e ica i Si ce h i i a i i a hi E e a d h e Pacific. J W d W a II. A O e ie c e ee i WWII ha e a ife? U ba e, e' ea e e c e , h e e , h e e' a e f he Wa ' I ac Th e Ne Dea a d W d W a II b g h ab a U i e d S a e . Th e e e i b ed A e ica 1. Big g e c . i ch A e i ca . ife? di e i di c i i ei eie f f he ba e i e ig ifica e e f A e ica S cie i ica , ch d i g he a g ica , a d ec ic h if ea a d i ed ia e af e h e ig h i a d: he e us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture21.html 1/6 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 21: World War II: The Home Front 2. Th e eco n o m 3. Co mmu n is m at h o me an d ab ro ad "Ros ie the Ri eter" Th e wartime eco n o m b ro u g h t ab o u t fu ll emp lo men t an d , in d o in g s o , ach iev ed wh at New Deal p ro g rams h ad b een u n ab le to d o . In 1940, th ere were 8 millio n A merican s u n emp lo ed . B 1941, h o wev er, u n emp lo men t was almo s t u n h eard o f. Th ere were actu all lab o r h a g e in s o me in d u s tries . A s a res u lt, mo re an d mo re wo men en tered th e wo rkfo rce. W o men to o k u p jo b s in in d u s tr th at h ad o n ce b een res erv ed fo r men , an d " Ro s ie th e Riv eter" b ecame a p o p u lar A merican ico n . B 1945, wo men mad e u p 36% o f th e n atio n 's to tal wo rkfo rce. Enola O'Connell, onl woman welder at Heil Co., Milwauk ee, W I C op right 1997 S tate Historical S ociet of W isconsin S acrifice Th e fed eral g o v ern men t en co u rag ed A merican s to co n s erv e an d rec cle materials s u ch as metal, p ap er, an d ru b b er, wh ich facto ries co u ld th en u s e fo r wartime p ro d u ctio n . Lo ts o f ev er d a h o u s eh o ld tras h h ad v alu e: kitch en fats , o ld metal s h o v els , ev en emp t metal lip s tick tu b es . Ne d e a d fa f he ide c a e : i a e P fe S ch ' h e i ca e i ab he e g f he d " b b h e " d e c i b e a b ea i f a , i d e ' ee c ef he i ic b e b ei g ec c ed i b b a . A " b b h e " ca b e a ha e i g de a a i g ac e e .A "b de b b he " a ' i a g di g ga , b e h e iai h i e e ed igh a i g. I ' e ie e a ed h e a , h e e : h i ea i g f " b b h e " ca e i e i 1 9 4 2 . ( S ce: O f d E g i h Dic i a .) us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture21.html 2/6 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 21: World War II: The Home Front W a Bo n d p o id ed a c cial o ce o f e en e fo h e a effo . B p o n o in g p b lic n ch a celeb i a c io n , h e fed e al g o e n men ed W a Bo n d o ell h e a o h e A me ican p b lic in ead o f el in g o n A me ican in o l emen in h e a o ell bond . Os c ar Me er Co. deliver truc k implores c iti ens to "Inves t 10% of our inc ome in W ar Bonds for Vic tor !" C op igh 1997 S a e Hi o ical S ocie of W i con in Th e n ece i ie o f a e en in fl en ced A me ican fa h io n . In h e p in g o f 1942, h e W a P o d c io n Bo a d b ecame h e n a io n ' p emie clo h in g co n l an b d ic a in g le fo ci ilian ap p a el h a o ld co n e e clo h an d me al fo h e a effo . Fo e amp le, men ea id i elf o f e , elb o p a ch e o n jacke , an d c ff o n p an . W o men ' clo h in g al o elied o n fe e ma e ial an d ki b ecame h o e an d n a o e . De ig e fo p a io ic o men e e efficien , o -p iece b a h in g i , h ich c ea ed h e b ig g e p b lic i in ce M . A melia Blo o me . M . M a c o f Nieman -M a c fame called h e e i " p a io ic ch ic." Th e fed e al g o e n men al o co mp elled A me ican o c b ack o n fo o d ff an d co n me g o o d . A me ican , fo e amp le, n eed ed a io n ca d o p ch a e i em ch a g a o lin e, co ffee, g a , an d mea . Ra io n in g e en all f a ed man A me ican . Fo h e fi ime in ea , h e h ad mo n e o p en d , b h e e e e fe g o o d a ailab le fo p ch a e. Th i f a io n kep mo n in g n il h e en d o f h e a . W h en h e a fin all came o a clo e in 1945, in d ie e n ed o co n me p o d c io n an d A me ican en o n a b in g p ee o f n p eced en ed p o p o io n . S ocial S olutions Co n e a i e co n in ed o a ack Ro o e el an d h i Ne Deal, b A me ican in o l emen in W o ld W a II h elp ed a ag e man o f h e n a io n ' o cial ill , e p eciall h e d e a a in g eco n o mic p o b lem o f h e G ea Dep e io n . A me ica n o en jo ed f ll emp lo men an d a h ig h e o e all an d a d o f li in g . Lab o n io n b ecame mo e p o e f l an d h ei memb e h ip g e f o m 10 millio n b efo e h e a o 15 millio n af e h e a . Fa m in co me each ed n e h eig h , h ile h e n mb e o f en an fa me fell. Fo me fa m o ke o o k jo b in b an fac o ie . W a ime in e men eemed o alid a e Ke n e ian eco n o mic . Down to Brass Tacks No h a e' e g i en a g en e al o e ie o f h e d o me ic i a io n d in g W o ld W a II, le ' e amin e n in e p ecific effec o f Un i ed S a e in o l emen in h e co n flic . 1 . Liberals and reformers g ave priorit to militar s pending over s ocial and economic reform. Co n g e o lled b ack efo m leg i la io n d in g a ime. M an fac o ie in ig a ed a lo n g e o kin g d a o b o o in d ial o p . Th e fed e al g o e n men mad e an ileg i la io n a lo p io i . In o d e o co mb a h e lab o h o ag e, fed e al in p ec o ig n o ed la eg la in g h e emp lo men o f ch ild en an d o men . W i h e li le p b lic o c , h e n mb e o f h ig h ch o o l d o p o in c ea ed ig n ifican l . D in g h e a , h e een ag e o kfo ce g e f o m us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture21.html 3/6 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 21: World War II: The Home Front 1 3 F , .A 1 . A J J A A J -A W -A .I F C , 1942, R U S .T ,A ,C , ,C ,I U ,U S , W , 100,000 1944, R .A . 2 . P o ided an e c C e o aboli h eg men of he Ne Deal. , CCC, W PA , A , (NYA ). C , FDR N Y A , A -A , , . 3 . Ri e in fede al defici . A , , .A S .C 4. P W O , S he poo "back in hei place." ND 20 A A 64 , .S , . , , , , $7 5 . Chang e in compo i ion of fede al b ea c ac . A .B , R : , A . 25% $8 ' '" N N D D 6 . Inc ea e in he each and po e of he fede al g o e nmen and he p e idenc . F 1940 1945, ( ). A ,W ' $9 .A ' , P ' .F , S C . us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture21.html , " , Bu sin ess Week .T ' .B . . R "T 7 . The "Mili a -Ind ial Comple ." A ' W W II. A .D , dail , - ' A ." 1 4 $98.4 .T , C " - , " ' $250 , 4/6 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 21: World War II: The Home Front A .S . - 8 . Further s olidification of the "Corporate S tate." W W II .A ' 17% 1940 1945, , , , U S . 9 . A more urban and technolog ical s ociet . T , .T 15 , A . The End of the Roose ve lt Era P R A 12, 1945, W II, , .W G ' 1. T : .S S W W W W .T .I S U L 2. T U 3. A . I 1945, A A , I, A , , , B G A ' . S . , W W I. Churc hill, FDR, and Stalin on the patio of Livadia Palac e, Yalta, Crimea, Rus s ia in Feb ruar 1945 C A 1997 S , .T U S us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture21.html R S ' .H H S W :H .P ST , , ' 5/6 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 21: World War II: The Home Front take co n tro v ers ial s tan ces an d n ev er an g ered an y o n e. Ro o s ev elt an d Tru man s h ared little in co mmo n in terms o f th eir b ackg ro u n d an d p o litical s ty le. FDR was fro m o n e o f th e mo s t p ro min en t families in A merica an d h ad b een ed u cated at Harv ard Un iv ers ity an d Co lu mb ia Law Sch o o l. Tru man , o n th e o th er h an d , came fro m a family o f mo d es t mean s , h ad fo u g h t in W o rld W ar I, h ad h eld v ario u s o d d jo b s , an d h ad earn ed h is law d eg ree b y atten d in g n ig h t s ch o o l. He h ad ris en th ro u g h th e ran ks o f th e Kan s as City , M is s o u ri, p o litical mach in e to b eco me a Un ited States Sen ato r in 1934. Fo llo win g o n th e h eels o f th e o n ly p res id en t man y A merican s h ad ev er kn o wn , Tru man certain ly h ad h is wo rk cu t o u t fo r h im. In itially , h e mad e a n u mb er o f p o litical mis takes . In th e en d , h o wev er, h e tu rn ed o u t to b e o n e o f th e mo s t d y n amic an d d ecis iv e p res id en ts in A merican h is to ry . Du rin g h is firs t y ears in o ffice, Tru man p res en ted Co n g res s a h o s t o f leg is lativ e p ro p o s als , man y in th e s p irit o f th e New Deal. Th e h is to ry o f Tru man 's amb itio u s leg is lativ e p ro g rams , an d o f th eir fate in th e co n s erv ativ e Co n g res s , is a fas cin atin g an d es p ecially imp o rtan t p art o f o u r s to ry . So imp o rtan t, in fact, th at we'll take it u p in Lectu re 22: " Fro m New Deal to Fair Deal--New Game?" Lecture 21 Rela ed Web Link Conte nt Pre se nta tion Audie nce Li nk Info High School Pow e rs of Pe rsua sion: Poste r Art from W W II Colle ge "W om e n a t W a r: Re dstone 's W W II Fe m a le 'Production Soldie rs'," by Dr. Ka yle ne Hughe s Colle ge W a r Re loca tion Authority Ca m ps in Ariz ona , 1942-1946 Colle ge Fighte rs on the Fa rm Front: Ore gon's Em e rge ncy Fa rm La bor Se rvice , 1943-1947 High School Picture s of W W II Colle ge W orld W a r II Propa ga nda , Ca rtoons, Film , Music, & Art Skip Dire ctly To Le cture : || 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 || || 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 || || 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 || Home Cours e Guide Bios Photos Exams Calendar Comments /S ig n-in 1999 Bo ard o f Reg en ts o f th e Un iv ers ity o f W is co n s in Sy s tem us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture21.html 6/6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/25/2011 for the course HIST 058 taught by Professor Babice during the Fall '10 term at Everglades.

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