H102 Lecture 24_ The Cold War and the 1950s_ The Affluent Society

H102 Lecture 24_ The Cold War and the 1950s_ The Affluent Society

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Unformatted text preview: 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 24: The Cold War and the 1950s: The Affluent Societ S an le K. Sch l , P o fe o o f Hi o W illiam P. Ti h le , P o d ce Lec re 24 The 1950 : The C d Wa a d he Af f e S cie Th e Co ld W a an d h e p ead o f Co mm n i m in Ea e n E o p e, Ch in a, an d Ko ea in h e la e 1940 an d ea l 1950 p o mp ed h e Un i ed S a e o in c ea e d ama icall i d efen e p en d in g . A mo e an d mo e co mp an ie came o el o n d efen e co n ac , h e p o e o f h e mili a -in d ial co mp le g e . On e d o me ic e l o f h i a ela io n h ip a a a e o f p o p e i an d h e g o h o f h e mid d le cla in h e Un i ed S a e . Th i lec e e amin e A me ica' fo eig n p o lic in h e 1950 an d h e effec o f h a p o lic o n h e A me ican p eo p le. S e 1. 2. 3. 4. ei ee i i d: H did A e ica eade H did A e ica defi e "The A e ica D ea " d i g he 1 9 5 0 ? De c ibe he i C a e he ac e d he e cei ed h ea f C f he "Mi i a -I d ig a i ae ia C (i.e., he e did e e" i ag g e i he A e ica ec e i e? ) f A e i ca d i g he 1 9 5 0 ? . d i g he 1 9 5 0 h e f he 1940 . 5. H did A e ica ie he e f he ca i a i ec i d affai ? F e ig Affai P e ide T a a d "M . X" Th e T man Do c in e, p e en iall a ed : fo h b P e id en Ha T man h en h e ad d e ed Co n g e o n M a ch 12, 1947, "T he Uni ed S a e ill defend f ee people and hei f ee in i ion a an place a an poin in he o ld he e o ide comm ni agg e ion h ea en ha na ion' in e nal abili ." us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture24.html 1/6 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 24: The Cold War and the 1950s: The Affluent Societ I T D " " .A G K Fo reig n Affa irs Qu a rterl . K , U S C T , " M . X" : Geo ge F. Kennan (1904- ), diploma and hi o ian C 1. T R H S W ;' R 2. T 3. T 1997 S . U S U S " S ." - S C . " - T P U .T S .W K S C 1941, P U S . " C .T .R R , P .S , K ,V , P J C , S ? T H D , , The M a hall Plan and he Be lin Ai lif T U S E T H , .H ' W E U J U B A , S 1947 312%. U S 1947, C. M , ." I A E .M - us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture24.html P A E S .T "M E ." M , $13 1951, C " E .T ' C R P 5, 1947, G W E E .W "G W .B 1948 1951, G . ," W E , G ' S 2/6 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 24: The Cold War and the 1950s: The Affluent Societ Un io n fo r in flu en ce in Eas tern Eu ro p e. Th is s tru g g le b ecame ev id en t d u rin g th e 1948 So v iet b lo ckad e o f Berlin . A fter th e en d o f W o rld W ar II, th e A llies h ad d iv id ed th e cit o f Berlin , an d th e co u n tr o f German as a wh o le, in to fo u r o n es , o n e co n tro lled b th e So v iet Un io n , an d th e o th er th ree co n tro lled b Great Britain , Fran ce, an d th e Un ited States . In res p o n s e to g ro win g A merican eco n o mic an d militar p o wer in Eu ro p e, th e So v iet Un io n cu t o ff wes tern lin ks to Berlin , wh ich was lo cated in s id e th e So v iet-o ccu p ied o n e. Tru man , in tu rn , o rd ered a mas s iv e, ear-lo n g airlift o f med ical s u p p lies , fo o d an d clo th in g fo r W es t Berlin ers . Ev en tu all , th e So v iets lifted th e b lo ckad e. In 1948 an d 1949, h o wev er, th e So v iet Un io n s p o n s o red Co mmu n is t rev o lu tio n s in Eas tern -b lo c co u n tries s u ch as C ech o s lo v akia, Ro man ia, an d Hu n g ar . In res p o n s e, in A p ril 1949, twelv e n atio n s o f W es tern Eu ro p e an d No rth A merica s ig n ed th e No rth A tlan tic Treat , creatin g th e No rth A tlan tic Treat Org an i atio n (NA TO). Th e g o al o f NA TO was to co o rd in ate th e d efen s e o f W es tern Eu ro p e. A n attack o n an o f its memb er n atio n s was eq u al to an attack o n all, with each n atio n o b lig ed to b attle th eir co mmo n fo e. Primar s u p p o rt, b o th militaril an d mo n etaril , came fro m th e Un ited States . The Chine s e Civil War Bes id es Eu ro p e, ev en ts in o th er p arts o f th e g lo b e als o s eemed to s ig n al th e s p read o f Co mmu n is m. In Ch in a, th e o n g o in g civ il war b etween th e Natio n alis ts , led b Ch ian g Kai-Sh ek, an d th e Co mmu n is ts , led b M ao Ts e-tu n g (als o s p elled " Zed o n g " ), came to a clo s e in 1949 wh en Ch ian g Kais h ek an d h is s u p p o rters to o k refu g e o n th e is lan d o f Fo rmo s a (Taiwan ). Th e Natio n alis ts o n Taiwan es tab lis h ed th e Rep u b lic o f Ch in a. M ean wh ile, M ao p ro claimed th e Peo p le's Rep u b lic o f Ch in a o n th e main lan d . Th e Un ited States reco g n i ed Ch ian g 's Natio n alis t g o v ern men t as th e rig h tfu l an d o fficial Ch in a, a p o lic main tain ed u n til 1979, wh en th e Un ited States n o rmali ed d ip lo matic relatio n s with th e Peo p le's Rep u b lic. Mao Zedong, Communis t leader of China, ith unidentified man C op right 1997 S tate Historical S ociet of W isconsin Se cre t Se curit A ll o f th es e ev en ts called fo r a fu ll rev iew o f A merican fo reig n p o lic . In res p o n s e, th e fed eral g o v ern men t created th e Natio n al Secu rit Co u n cil in 1947. In 1950, th e Co u n cil d rew u p a p o lic s tatemen t: NSC-68. Th is s tatemen t v iewed co n flict b etween Eas t an d W es t as in ev itab le, b u t in th e g rav es t o f terms : an s u ch co n flict th reaten ed n o t ju s t th e Un ited States , b u t als o all o f civ ili atio n . Th e p ap er ad v o cated an in creas e in d efen s e s p en d in g fro m 5% o f th e fed eral b u d g et to 20%, as well as an in creas e in A merican aid to fo reig n n atio n s . NSC-68 remain ed a s ecret d o cu men t fo r twen t ears , b u t it d ictated A merican fo reig n p o lic fo r d ecad es . Dome stic Affairs A merican fo reig n p o lic h ad an en o rmo u s d o mes tic imp act. It in flu en ced b o th th e Seco n d Red Scare an d th e ris e o f M cCarth is m. Bu t o th er facto rs als o s h ap ed th e h o me fro n t d u rin g th is p erio d . Featu res o f th e 1950s in clu d ed : 1. Th e Co ld W ar us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture24.html 3/6 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 24: The Cold War and the 1950s: The Affluent Societ 2. R 3. M A .Y A A 1950 , :M : , ,M . M "A D " .O , - .A , P D D. E . "S ords into Fris be e s :" The M ilitar -Indus trial Comple I , "A D " .T " " C D K W .C .B 1960 , D .B .B A D I 1970 , .W D , 75 D U 1956, P R , A .I A 6% 1950 , A 1961 , . E .A " .A 'G S , M , P N , I ,E - , ." , ?A 1/3 (GNP) .I S 40,000 D , , -1950 , 1950 , 29 ' 51%. D . GI A W W .D .H II .T K U .T ,A , ,F , . M e e ting the De mand N " ," - .A M .W - . , , , , - , .J .M " R&D" -IBM , - .S .T U , , - W 1960 . Gro th of the M iddle Clas s D 1950 , $10,000 30% 50%. T - , " , " 1940 , 9% " " .I . B 1960, , .C .T 1960 .A - us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture24.html A . B 1960, 25% U S GI B , , .O . 4/6 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 24: The Cold War and the 1950s: The Affluent Societ The "Kitche n De bate " Th e A me ican co n me eco n o m b ecame h e h ea o f h e o -called " Ki ch en Deb a e" b e een Vice P e id en Rich a d Ni o n an d So ie P emie Niki a Kh h ch e . In 1959, M o co h o ed an in e n a io n al e h ib i io n . Th e Un i ed S a e d eleg a io n , led b Ni o n , d i p la ed a mo d e n , f ll - o cked A me ican ki ch en in o d e o d emo n a e A me ica' cce in p o id in g i p eo p le i h co n me g o o d . A h i e h ib i io n , Ni o n an d Kh h ch e g o in o a h ea ed a g men o e h ich eco n o m an d h ich fo m o f g o e n men o ld o la h e o h e . O e all, h o e e , h i n e A me ican eco n o m a la g el ep h eme al: b ief, flee in g , an d an i o . In h e p a , A me ican h ad lo n g ed fo la in g n ece i ie like h o e an d ca . No , man A me ican eemed o b e ed i h co llec in g stu ff. Th e g o in g o h c l e o f h e ime d emo n a ed h i en d , al h o g h o ld e p eo p le al o b eg an o em la e h ei een -ag ed o n an d d a g h e an d ied o jean , h la h o o p , an d fb o a d . Fo h e fi ime in A me ican h i o , een ag e b ecame majo co n me . Th e p p o ed h e p o p la m ic in d , e p eciall h e n e " o ck an d o ll." Ne in d ie e e g ea ed e en iall a o h , an d n o i h o ea o n . B 1960, A me ica' een ag e p en $22 b illio n a ea o n co n me i em . To p h i in p e p ec i e, $22 b illio n a ea a ice h e g o n a io n al p o d c o f A ia. The Te le vis e d Socie t Th e b ig g e co n me e o l io n a h e g o h o f h e ele i io n in d . Th e ech n o lo g fo ele i io n h ad e i ed in ce h e la e 1920 , b A me ican co mp an ie d id n o ma p o d ce TV n il af e W o ld W a II. In 1946, h e e e e 17,000 ele i io n e in h e n a io n , mo l in h e Ea . B 1949, A me ican p ch a ed 250,000 e e e mo n th . B 1953, o - h i d o f A me ican h o me h ad a lea o n e TV. Tele i io n h ad a la in g in fl en ce o n p o li ical camp aig n . Th e p e id en ial elec io n o f 1952 a h e fi ime h a a can d id a e fo p e id en mad e e o f ele i io n ad e i in g . Ei en h o e ed 15- an d 30- eco n d p o p o d ced b Ba o n , Ba o n , De ein , an d O b o n e. Yo 'll ecall h a B ce Ba o n , a fo n d e o f h i fi m, h ad ea lie o ld Je in h i b o o k, Th e Ma n No b o d Kn o ws. Nega i e f om he Mil a k ee J o nal' c o e age of Sep . 26, 1960 Ni on-Kenned deb a e C op igh 1997 S a e Hi o ical S ocie Th e g o in g imp ac o f ele i io n an d h e i e o f o h c l b eco min g h o mo g en i ed , co n fo mi o cie . B 1960, ab o in b b . S e eo p ical imag e o f b b ia p p o ed h e h o e , h o e i e ai in g ch ild en a h o me, h b an d us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture24.html of W i con in B h e 1960 p e id en ial camp aig n , ele i io n h ad b eco me o cen al o p eo p le' li e h a man ob e e b lamed Ni o n ' lo o Jo h n F. Ken n ed o n h i p o o ap p ea an ce in h e ele i ed p e id en ial d eb a e . JFK lo o ked co o l, co llec ed , p e id en ial. Ni o n , acco d in g o one ob e e , e emb led a " in i e ch ip m n k." e led man o cial c i ic o ch a g e h a A me ica a 30.5% o f A me ican , o 55 millio n o o f 180 millio n , li ed ie h a h e n a io n a b eco min g co n fo mi : Le i o n g g lin g h ei a p h e co p o a e lad d e , b ack a d 5/6 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 24: The Cold War and the 1950s: The Affluent Societ b arb ecu es . Critics als o b eliev ed th at th e g ro wth o f n o n -d en o min atio n al ch u rch es in d icated th at relig io n was b eco min g a th in g o f th e p as t in A merica. Ev en after Co n g res s ad d ed " u n d er Go d " to th e Pled g e o f A lleg ian ce an d " In Go d W e Tru s t" to th e n atio n 's cu rren cy , real s p iritu ality s eemed to b e d is ap p earin g fro m A merican s o ciety . If all th es e claims o f cu ltu ral co n fo rmity were tru e, th an th ere was n o mo re p erfect p o litician fo r th is era in A merican h is to ry th an Dwig h t D. Eis en h o wer. Eis en h o wer p racticed " th e p o litics o f tran q u ility " -- a n ew execu tiv e s ty le th at was q u ite d ifferen t fro m th e s o cial activ is m o f Ro o s ev elt an d Tru man . Yet, as A merican s emerg ed fro m th is d ecad e o f tran q u ility , a n ew p res id en t, Jo h n F. Ken n ed y , wo u ld h elp u s h er in a n ew ag e o f s o cial activ is m an d cu ltu ral u n res t. A s a matter o f fact, th e s to ry o f th es e two p res id en ts an d th eir co n tras tin g d ecad es is b etter th an an ep is o d e o f Th e Ho n e mo o n ers. It's s o in teres tin g , in fact, th at we'll take it u p in Lectu re 25: " Th e Th o u s an d Day s o f Kn ig h ts : Th e Ken n ed y Years ." Lecture 24 Rela ed Web Link Conte nt Pre se nta tion Audie nce Li nk Info Colle ge Cold W a r Hot Links Colle ge Inte rvie w w ith Ge orge Ke nna n, Da vid Ge rge n (April 18, 1996) Colle ge Ja ck Ke roua c High School "The Tw ilight Zone ," from the Sci-Fi Cha nne l High School Rock a nd Roll Ha ll of Fa m e - Elvis Pre sle y Colle ge The Be rlin Airlift Skip Dire ctly To Le cture : || 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 || || 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 || || 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 || Home Cours e Guide Bios Photos Exams Calendar Comments /S ig n-in 1999 Bo ard o f Reg en ts o f th e Un iv ers ity o f W is co n s in Sy s tem us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture24.html 6/6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/25/2011 for the course HIST 058 taught by Professor Babice during the Fall '10 term at Everglades.

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