H102 Lecture 30_ America Sinking through a Watergate

H102 Lecture 30_ America Sinking through a Watergate -...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 30: America Sinking through a Watergate S a e K. Sch , P fe f Hi W i ia P. Ti h e , P d ce Lec re 30 America Sinking through a Watergate D i g h e 1968 e id e ia ca aig De e i . Deb a e h e ig h f ca e, e ibe i A e ica a e . A h e c e f h i d i S , h e ca d a a d W a e ga e 1970 . Th i ec e d e c ib e h e d e a fai h i g e e. ea , A e ica ee ed c e ci i a h a a a a d i e f ac ed cie , ea -c a e h e a i ' ci ie , a d h e c e -c e ee ed e a h e a i Vie a , a a c id e ed i d ead a A e ica e i f he he ic i ha e h e a i d i g h e 1960 a i e i ce h e G ea ag ed c eg e h ea e ad i i a ab i e. a i ' d i ec i i h e d 1970 a d d e i ed S ome ques tions to k eep in mind: 1. How did the upheaval and dis s ent on American colleg e campus es during the Vietnam War help to s hape United S tates domes tic and foreig n policy? 2. Evaluate this s tatement: "The policies of "Containment" and "D tente" both accept as their central tenet the idea of military equilibrium and are jus t different names for the s ame policy." 3. Was Richard Nixon the ultimate embodiment of the "Imperial Pres idency" we have dis cus s ed in previous lectures ? How did Nixon's view of the pres idency differ from the views of other "Imperial Pres idents " we have dis cus s ed? The Se cre t Plan: "Vie tnamiz ation" D i g h e 1968 e id e ia ca aig , Re b ica ca d id a e Rich a d Ni a ced a ec e a f e d i g A e ica' i e e i h e Vie a W a . O ce h e ca e ffice i 1969, Ni g a e h i a a a e: " Vie a i a i ." W h a h e ea b " Vie a i a i " a h a h e U i ed S a e d i h d a g ad a f Vie a a d e i i a d ie h e S h Vie a e e. I e e ce, Ni ' a a a e he icie Ei e h e a d Ke ed h a ed h e h e S h Vie a e e f ce fig h h e a . f H e e ,e e i Vie a c i ed h a Ni ' a . Th e N h Vie a e e C i e ed h ei a ac i 1969 a d ed i e i La a d Ca b d ia h ei . Th e e eff ed Ni d e a ec e U i ed S a e i a i f Ca b d ia a e a i c ea ed b b i g i La . Th i a , h e e , d id e ai a ec e f h e A e ica b ic f g . O A i 30, 1970, Ni a ea ed a i a ee i i a ce h a h e U i ed S a e h ad i ad ed Ca b d ia a d h a h e g e e eed ed d af a ad d i i a 150,000 A e ica d ie . Th i a ce e ed e e e a i- a e, f he c eg e us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture30.html 1/7 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 30: America Sinking through a Watergate camp u s es . Univers it of W is c ons in-Madis on s tudents c onfront polic e during Dow Chemic al demons trations on c ampus C opyright 1997 S tate Historical S ociety of W isconsin On M ay 4, 1970, p an icky tro o p s o f th e Natio n al Gu ard fired s h o ts in to a cro wd o f s tu d en t d emo n s trato rs at Ken t State Un iv ers ity in Oh io , killed fo u r o f th e p ro tes to rs , an d wo u n d ed n in e. Th e in cid en t o u trag ed th e p u b lic an d tu rn ed man y mo d erates ag ain s t th e Vietn am W ar an d th e Nixo n ad min is tratio n . Un d er in creas in g p res s u re to b rin g ab o u t a s wift en d to th e war, Nixo n o rd ered s atu ratio n b o mb in g o f No rth Vietn am as well as h eav ier min in g o f its h arb o rs . Th is military s trateg y , at las t, h ad a p o litical effect, an d th e p arties in v o lv ed in th e war s ig n ed a tru ce early in 1973. Un ited States tro o p s b eg an to with d raw, with mo s t A merican s o ld iers o u t o f Vietn am b y M arch 1973. Th e war in Vietn am, h o wev er, rag ed o n fo r an o th er two y ears . Th e Un ited States p ro v id ed s o me air s u p p o rt wh ile th e So u th Vietn ames e co n tin u ed to fig h t a g ro u n d camp aig n ag ain s t th e No rth Vietn ames e. In 1975, th e tid e fin ally tu rn ed ag ain s t A merica an d its allies . Th at y ear, No rth Vietn ames e fo rces cap tu red Saig o n , th e cap ital o f So u th Vietn am, an d th e las t Un ited States tro o p s ev acu ated fro m th e war to rn co u n try . In 1976, No rth an d So u th Vietn am reu n ited u n d er Co mmu n is t ru le. Two d ecad es o f A merican in v o lv emen t in th e Vietn am W ar h ad d ev as tated Vietn am an d its p eo p le, h ad claimed o v er 55,000 A merican liv es , an d h ad fray ed A merican s o ciety . In th e en d , th e Un ited States h ad g ain ed little. Richard Ni on's Fore ign Polic Achie ve me nts In all fairn es s to Nixo n (an d y o u kn o w we are alway s s cru p u lo u s ly fair), we n eed to examin e h is real ach iev emen ts in th e realm o f fo reig n p o licy : He with d rew Un ited States tro o p s fro m Vietn am, h o wev er s lo wly , an d acco mp lis h ed wh at Jo h n s o n h ad b een u n ab le to d o . He ad v o cated a p o licy o f D ten te to eas e ten s io n s b etween th e Un ited States an d th e So v iet Un io n . " D ten te" --a Fren ch wo rd mean in g " releas e fro m ten s io n " --was a n ew ty p e o f d ip lo macy d ev elo p ed b y Rich ard Nixo n an d Hen ry Kis s in g er, Nixo n 's Natio n al Secu rity A d v is o r (Kis s in g er later b ecame Secretary o f State in 1973). D ten te allo wed fo r a p artial th awin g o f th e Co ld W ar an d th e reco g n itio n th at th e So v iet Un io n was n o t, in th e ey es o f th e Un ited States , th e s eat o f ev il in th e wo rld . D ten te wo rked to p lay o ff th e ten s io n b etween th e So v iet Un io n an d th e Peo p le's Rep u b lic o f Ch in a--two Co mmu n is t s tates with a h is to ry o f an imo s ity an d riv alry . Nixo n an d Kis s in g er's p lan us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture30.html 2/7 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 30: America Sinking through a Watergate a e b a a ce f e di ac ai ai de i ib i "T he dee e i e a i a c f ic i he d U i b be ee he S ie U i . Said Ki i g e : da i a dC be ee a d he S ie i Chi a." The "Fi e Police me n" Conce p A cc d i g Ni a d Ki i g e , fi e ecific a i ( c he e g i g f a i ) h ad c e a e ii a i a di d ia ai ai h i g b a b a a ce f e . Th e h a d e ai e e a d " ice" h e h e ai a d he g be i he i e e f d eace. Th e " Fi e P ice e " e e: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. S ie U i U i ed S a e We e Pe E e e' Re b ic f Ch i a Ja a Ni on and China E e i ce M a Zed g h ad e ab i h ed h e Pe e' Re b ic f Ch i a i 1949, h e U i ed S a e h ad ef ed ac ed g e C ic f h e a i a d ec g i ed i ead h e g e e f Tai a a h e fficia Ch i e e a e. S a i g i 1971, h e e , Ni e e ed h i ic a d b eg a e a ch a e f c ica i i h h e Pe e' Re b ic. Fi , Ch i a i i ed a A e ica ab e- e i ea a a e . Th i " Pi g -P g Di ac " d e a ed a ea i g f e i b e ee h e a i . Th e , Ni ca ed C ge ea e ad e e ic i ag ai Ch i a. I J 1971, i h a e e he e e id e ia e ec i , Ni a ced a i i Ch i a. W h d id Rich a d Ni Reali m - He , he e a i-C de d ha he c Uni ed Na ion and o ld comm ni ad i i i , e e e h e U i ed S a e Ch i e e h e U i ed Na i - Ma c ie ie U i ' Ni on co ld g e a a acc Pe ai ai g e i h i - Ni ha he a " co e ag e - Ni he da e e ca i g f ' g i ga a a h e Pe e' Re ie . b ic f Ch i a' . Ba g aining chip i h he S o ie Union - Ni ee h e S i ic ? e ha S ie P e ie Le id B e h e i ica i a --Ch i a a d h e U i ed S a e --c ' hi a ac ad e ag ai C i d ag ai ea a hi . ec ed h i ag ai i h - f ." a ed g ai ii e e c e ag e d i g a e ec i ea . I Feb a 1972, Ni g ai ed h e h ea e c e ag e h e c a ed h e h e i i ed Ch i a. Hi di a ic ie b e ee h e a i . W i hi a a e f h , Ni bi h i f eig Ch i a h e h e i i ed h e S ie U i . i i h e ed e ab i h ic ach ie e e i Ni on and he So ie Union D i g h ei ee i g , B e h e a d Ni 1. A g eed 2. A g eed 3. A g eed E e af e h i f dc e he f ig i : e i ie i i a i c eai i ace e ea i g ad e e i i ab ad , Ni us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture30.html ai ic i ' cce e i f eig ic c i ed . O e f h i ach ie e e aae 3/7 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 30: America Sinking through a Watergate ag reemen t with th e So v iets o n th e fate o f th e city o f Berlin . Berlin h ad b een a s o re p o in t in Eas t-W es t relatio n s s in ce th e en d o f th e Seco n d W o rld W ar, an d es p ecially after th e co n s tru ctio n o f th e Berlin W all in 1961. Th e Berlin Ag reement of 1 9 7 2 was Nixo n 's mo s t imp o rtan t ach iev emen t in p u rs u in g th e p o licy o f D ten te. Un d er th e 1972 ag reemen t, th e Un ited States an d So v iet Un io n p led g ed to th e fo llo win g p ro v is io n s : 1. A n eas in g o f trav el res trictio n s b etween Eas t an d W es t Berlin . 2. Th e Un ited States ag reed to reco g n ize th e leg itimacy o f th e German Demo cratic Rep u b lic (Eas t German y ). 3. Th e Un ited States p ro mis ed wo u ld ab an d o n its 30-y ear p o licy o f s eekin g German reu n ificatio n . A n o th er p o litical triu mp h fo r Nixo n was th e S trateg ic Arms Limitation Treat (S ALT I) o f 1972. Th is was th e firs t ten tativ e s tep o f th e Un ited States an d th e So v iet Un io n to eas e ten s io n s b etween th e two s u p erp o wers an d to red u ce th e th reat o f a n u clear war b y limitin g ato mic weap o n s . In SA LT I, th e two n atio n s ag reed to th e fo llo win g p ro v is io n s : 1. Ceilin g s o n th e p ro d u ctio n o f in terco n tin en tal b allis tic mis s iles (ICBMs ) an d s u b -lau n ch ed mis s iles . 2. A res trictio n o f an ti-b allis tic mis s iles . 3. Each n atio n ag reed to limit th ems elv es to two d efen s iv e co mp lexes . SA LT I d id little to limit th e to tal o ffen s iv e p o wer o f eith er s id e, b u t it d id d emo n s trate th at u n d er th e p o licy o f D ten te, ag reemen t b etween th e s u p erp o wers was p o s s ib le. Me anwhile ... Ev en if o n e co u ld arg u e th at Nixo n was o n e o f th e mo s t s u cces s fu l A merican p res id en ts o f th e twen tieth cen tu ry in terms o f fo reig n p o licy , h is d o mes tic p o licy h as marred h is rep u tatio n . His to rian s refer to th e d is as tro u s ch ain o f ev en ts th at ev en tu ally fo rced Nixo n o u t o f o ffice as " W aterg ate." W aterg ate was th e n ame o f a W as h in g to n , D. C. h o tel an d o ffice co mp lex in wh ich th e Demo cratic Natio n al Co mmittee lo cated its camp aig n h ead q u arters fo r th e 1972 electio n . On th e n ig h t o f Ju n e 16, 1972, s ev eral men wo rkin g fo r th e Pres id en t b ro ke in to th e W aterg ate to p lan t illeg al wiretap s in th e Demo cratic o ffices . It was a b o tch ed affair fro m th e v ery b eg in n in g an d th e res u ltin g fallo u t n o t o n ly en d ed Nixo n 's p res id en tial career, b u t ch an g ed A merican s ' id eas ab o u t p o litics , in g en eral, an d ab o u t th e Pres id en cy , in p articu lar. A fter W aterg ate, man y A merican s refu s ed to tru s t th e execu tiv e b ran ch o f g o v ern men t to th e exten t th at th ey h ad in th e p as t. Background on Wate rgate Rich ard M . Nixo n h ad a p aran o id fear o f p o litical en emies . Th is fear man ifes ted its elf in Nixo n 's effo rts to is o late an d d es tro y an y p o ten tial d an g ers an d to try an d co n tro l d is s en t in A merican s o ciety . M an y o f Nixo n 's clo s es t ad v is ers s h ared th e Pres id en t's s ieg e men tality . Th es e p eo p le in clu d ed : Ch arles Co ls o n , Sp ecial A s s is tan t to th e Pres id en t Jo h n M itch ell, A tto rn ey Gen eral H.R. Hald eman , W h ite Ho u s e Ch ief o f Staff Jo h n Eh rlich man , Ch ief Do mes tic A d v is o r Eh rlich man an d Hald eman , b o th d o mes tic ad v is o rs , d rew u p a lis t o f th e Pres id en t's p o litical en emies . Th is lis t, wh ich n u mb ered ab o u t 300 p eo p le, co n tain ed th e n ames o f p ro min en t fig u res in all areas o f s o ciety , in clu d in g W alter M o n d ale, Ed mu n d M u s kie, Ted Ken n ed y , Dan iel Sch o rr, Stev e M cQu een , Jan e Fo n d a, an d Dick Greg o ry . Th e lis t lab eled twen ty p ers o n s " es p ecially d an g ero u s ." On ce Eh rlich man an d Hald eman p u t to g eth er th e lis t, th ey tried to d etermin e h o w b es t to n eu tralize th e Pres id en t's en emies . Jo h n Dean , a lawy er an d W h ite Ho u s e s taffer, s aid : us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture30.html 4/7 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 30: America Sinking through a Watergate "H ?S N 1968 .N .F " ." N , , P I N ,N .H , H P , , ?" .T H T R S S C U CIA FBI , .T N , J. E .N "P ' FBI H ' S - , H , ," .T P P 1971. The Pe n agon Pape T E P P T V Times ,D D ' , P P .I H , , .E , C J M O , "P , C E W D .D Ne Yo rk Times J 13, 1971. A S C ," G. G E ' Wa sh in g to n Po st. N L , E. H " "P R -E M ." " N P ' 1972. O , CREEP. CREEP 1972 A G , .H N CREEP' . ." CREEP , ' J D . CREEP, L - D .M J , ' " , A W O P D , , 16, D .I N . C ' . CREEP. D , , W C D Wa sh in g to n Po st FBI - A W .S N .D C - .N ' .T , U us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture30.html S ,S , . I M 1973, S P A , N N ' , S Un ited S ta tes . Ni o n (1974) VP S T. A VP . 23, 1972, N J N .S , , B , , O P , B S S E C N O C P .A , 5/7 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 30: America Sinking through a Watergate M ean wh ile, House h earin g s b eg an in Ju ly 1974. A lth o u g h Nixo n h ad n o t s u rren d ered all o f th e tap es , Co n g res s h eard en o u g h to learn th at Nixo n h ad b een th e rin g mas ter o f a d eceitfu l ad min is tratio n . Th e Ho u s e p lan n ed to imp each th e Pres id en t fo r o rg an izin g a co v er-u p , o b s tru ctin g ju s tice, an d ab u s in g p o wer. Facin g a larg ely u n s y mp ath etic p u b lic an d th e p ro s p ect o f an imp each men t trial, Nixo n res ig n ed fro m o ffice o n A u g u s t 9, 1974. Ev en tu ally , 378 fed eral o fficials eith er p lead ed g u ilty o r were in d icted in co n n ectio n with W aterg ate. "Control Pollution: Dump or Flus h [Ni on] 1972 Sanitar Gas k et" C opyright 1997 S tate Historical S ociety of W isconsin In th e aftermath o f W aterg ate, th e A merican p u b lic lo s t a g reat d eal o f faith in th e o ffice o f th e Pres id en t. Nixo n 's s u cces s o r, Pres id en t Gerald Fo rd , was well-in ten tio n ed , b u t lo s t cred ib ility wh en , n o t lo n g after b eco min g Pres id en t, h e p ard o n ed Nixo n fo r an y crimes , real an d imag in ed , th at h e h ad co mmitted wh ile in th e W h ite Ho u s e. Th e s to ry o f ev ery th in g th at h as o ccu rred in A merica s in ce 1974 is in cred ib ly fas cin atin g . In fact, th is tale co v ers th e lifetime o f mo s t His to ry 102 s tu d en ts . Bu t, th is is a h is to ry clas s , an d we n eed time to mu ll o v er th e ev en ts o f th e n atio n 's recen t p as t b efo re we can in terp ret th em fo r y o u . W e'll take u p th e ev en ts o f th e 1970s , 1980s , 1990s , an d to d ay in a fu tu re clas s ... Lec re 30 Rela ed Web Link Conte nt Pre se nta tion Audie nce Li nk Colle ge The Pe nta gon Pa pe rs Colle ge W a te rga te Colle ge Nix on's Se cond Ina ugura l Addre ss, Ja nua ry 20, 1973 Skip Dire ctly To Le cture : 01 02 03 04 05 06 us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture30.html Info 07 08 09 10 6/7 12/22/11 H102 Lecture 30: America Sinking through a Watergate || 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 || || 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 || Home Cours e Guide Bios Photos Exams Calendar Comments /S ig n-in 1999 Bo ard o f Reg en ts o f th e Un iv ers ity o f W is co n s in Sy s tem us.histor .wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture30.html 7/7 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 12/25/2011 for the course HIST 058 taught by Professor Babice during the Fall '10 term at Everglades.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online