Notes the Age of Reason

Notes the Age of Reason - THE AGE OF REASON; THE...

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THE AGE OF REASON; THE SCIENTIFICE REVOLUTION AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT Thinkers who changed our view of the universe. Copernicus - Developed the Heliocentric theory, that the sun was the center of the solar system. Johannes Kepler - Planets move not in circles, but in ellipses (oval paths) around the sun. Galileo - In 1609 he built a telescope and what he saw through it convinced him that the Copernican theory (heliocentric) was correct. Galileo also developed the law of inertia (i.e. objects remain at rest or in straight line motion unless acted upon by an external force. NEW PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE Francis Bacon - He believed you should set aside traditional beliefs and superstitions and rely on observation and experiment. He also believed you should use precise words to avoid vague thinking. British philosopher became Lord Chancellor to James I. Early proponent of the scientific method . Rene Descartes - 1637- French philosopher. He believed you should doubt everything and believe only that which could be proved. He started his search for knowledge by doubting everything, which could possibly be doubted. He reached the conclusion that the only thing he could not doubt was his own existence. If he doubted someone had to be doing the doubting, thus his famous quote; "I think therefore I am." He did conclude that there were many other things which could be known based on that one un-doubtable truth; his own existence. His biggest impact might be that he placed at the center of philosophy the question; "How do I know?" In answering that question he started with doubt not faith. Isaac Newton - Developed the theory of gravity and the idea that the universe was orderly and governed by natural laws, which could be known and understood. His ideas gave birth to the concept of the mechanical universe , that the universe operated like one big machine and could be understood as any machine could be understood. He laid the foundation for the theories, which subsequently revolutionized the world. How did the scientific revolution effect other areas of learning, particularly social and political ideas? How did Newton's idea of a mechanical universe governed by natural mathematical laws effect people's thinking about society and politics? Natural Law - People began to believe that society and politics were governed by natural laws, just the way the physical universe was. They came to believe that universal moral law was knowable by reason . Thomas Hobbes and John Locke;
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This note was uploaded on 12/25/2011 for the course HIST 058 taught by Professor Babice during the Fall '10 term at Everglades.

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Notes the Age of Reason - THE AGE OF REASON; THE...

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