World History Ch. 4 sec. 5

World History Ch. 4 sec. 5 - Chapter 4 Section 5 Section...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Section 5 Section Absolute Monarchy in Russia Peter the Great Modernizes Russia Russia • In the early 1600, Russia was far behind the more In advanced western European nations. advanced • By the end of the century, tsar Peter the Great, turned By Peter turned Russia into a leading power. Russia • In 1697, Peter traveled to Western Europe to learn In about it for himself. about • Peter embarked on a policy of westernization, that is Peter westernization that the adoption of Western ideas, technology, and culture. culture. Peter forces westernization Peter • Many in Russia resisted Peter efforts to westernize Many Russia. Russia. • To impose his will, Peter became the most autocratic To of Europe’s absolute monarchs. of • All Russian institutions were under Peter the Great’s All control. control. • He forced the boyars—landowning nobles—to serve He boyars—landowning the state in civilian or military positions. He even forced them to shave their beards and wear Westernforced style clothing. Peter Expands Russia’s borders borders • Peter built up Russia’s military power and extended Peter the borders. the • To increase Russia’s trade with the West, the To Russians needed a warm-water port. warm-water • The nearest port was on the Black Sea in the The Ottoman Empire. Peter however could not defeat the Ottoman Peter Ottomans. Ottomans. • In 1700, Peter began a long war against the kingdom In of Sweden, after early defeats he eventually defeated of after Sweden and won territory along the Baltic Sea. Baltic Building St. Petersburg Building • On the land won from Sweden, Peter built a On magnificent new capital city, St. Petersburg. magnificent • Peter wanted this new capital to be a “window to the window West.” West • He forced tens of thousands of serfs to drain the He swamps so that he could build the city. Thousands died in the process. died • St. Petersburg became a great symbol of Peter’s St. effort to forge a modern Russia. effort Peter the Great’s Legacy Peter • Peter’s legacy was mixed. • He had expanded Russia’s territory, gained ports He on the Baltic Sea, and created a mighty army. on • He also ended Russia’s long period of isolation. He isolation Russia became involved in the affairs of Western Europe. Europe. • After Peter died Russian nobles soon ignored his After policy of service to the state. policy • Peter used terror to enforce his policies. His Peter policies increased the growth of serfdom, which serfdom which actually widened the gap between Russia and the West which he sought to narrow. West Catherine the Great Catherine A German princess by birth, Catherine came to German Russia at age 15 to wed the heir to the Russian throne. She learned Russian, embraced the Russian She Orthodox faith, and won the loyalty of the people. people. In 1762, a group of Russian army officers loyal In to her deposed and murdered her mentally unstable husband. unstable With the support of the military Catherine With ascended to the throne. ascended Catherine’s rule Catherine’s Catherine the Great followed Peter’s lead in Catherine embracing Western ideas and expanding Russia’s borders. Russia’s She reorganized the provincial government, She codified the laws, and began state-sponsored education for both boys and girls. for She was a serious student of the French She thinkers Enlightenment. She was considered to Enlightenment. be an “enlightened despot.” be Catherine the Ruthless Absolute Monarch Absolute Catherine exempt the Boyars from taxes and allowed Catherine them to increase their stranglehold on the peasants. them When peasants rebelled against serfdom, Catherine When serfdom Catherine took firm action to repress them. Under Catherine even more peasants were forced into serfdom. even Waging the Russo-Turkish war against the Ottoman Waging Empire gained her a warm-water port on the Black Sea in 1774. in The Partitions of Poland The The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had once The Polish-Lithuanian been a great European power. been The divided Polish government was ill- prepared to stand up to the increasing might prepared of its neighbors, Russia, Prussia, and Austria. of To avoid fighting one another, in 1772, To Catherine the Great, Frederick the II, and Joseph Catherine and II, agreed to partition or divide up Poland. partition In 1793 & 1795 the three empires each took In more Polish territory and the independent Poland vanished Poland ...
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