World History Ch. 6 French Revolution & Napoleon

World History Ch. 6 French Revolution & Napoleon - The...

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Unformatted text preview: The French Revolution Revolution General Causes of the French Revolution Revolution Large gap between the rich and the poor. Heavy tax burden on the Third Estate (including the Heavy poor). poor). Large number of poor and unemployed in the cities. Growth of a strong middle class (Bourgeoisie) in Growth France. The middle class had wealth but lacked the political and legal rights of the nobility. political Refusal of the nobility to share in the tax burden. Development of Enlightenment ideas of; freedom, Development natural rights, social contract and democracy. natural General Causes of the French Revolution continued. continued. Weak leadership of Weak Louis XVI Louis Lavish lifestyle of Lavish Louis XVI and Maria Antoinette. She was Austrian (France’s longtime enemy). longtime French Government French was deeply in debt. Louis XVI had borrowed to help American Revolutionaries. Revolutionaries. Specific Events Leading to the French Revolution Revolution Louis XVI calls a meeting of the Estates- General to raise money. Louis XVI sided with the first and second Louis Estates and said that each Estate would meet by itself and then have one vote. meet The Third Estate declares itself to be the The National Assembly. In effect declaring an end to absolute monarchy and the beginning of representative government. This was the first deliberate act of revolution. revolution. Specific Events Leading to the French Revolution cont. French Louis XVI orders Swiss Louis mercenaries (soldiers for hire) to march on Paris. march Storming of the Bastille. Storming Parisians wanted the gun powder in the Bastille to defend the National Assembly against the Swiss troops. the Storming of the Bastille Symbolic beginning of the French Revolution beginning Phases of the French Revolution Revolution 1789-92 Establishment of a Constitutional Monarchy 1792-93 Jacobin Revolt and Establishment of a 1792-93 Republic Republic 1793-95 Reign of Terror 1795-1799 Establishment of the Conservative Directory. Phase one of the French Revolution Establishment of a Constitutional Monarchy 1789Establishment 92 In France at the end of the 18th century In there were three estates or Social Classes. there Because France needed money Louis XVI Because called a meeting of the Estates-General in 1789. The Estates-General had not met since 1614. since All three estates were represented by All delegates in the Estates-General. delegates The upper two estates wanted each estate The to have one vote, giving them power over the Third Estate. The Third Estate wanted to each delegate to have a vote giving them the power. (they had more When Louis XVI refused the Third Estate’s request for a mass meeting (voting as delegates). The Third Estate declared themselves to be the National Assembly. Assembly Members of the National Assembly swore that Members National they would remain in session until a constitution was completed. This was called the Tennis Court Oath. Oath Tennis Court Oath Tennis Louis XVI ordered all three estates to negotiate together in the National Assembly. Assembly. Because of mob violence and the threat of Because anarchy the clergy and the nobility joined the Third Estate to produce significant reforms. Third The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the The Citizen guaranteed freedom of speech, press and Citizen religion. (no mention was made of the rights of women). women). Many people were unhappy with the constitution. Some thought it went too far, some thought it did not go far enough. far 1. Extreme Radicals who 1. demanded “true democracy” were called Jacobins. Jacobins The National Assembly declared war on Austria in 1792. Austria is joined by Prussia and Sardinia Prussia 1. At first the French fought 1. poorly but as the enemy forces approached Paris they rallied around the cry Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. Equality, 2. They halted the enemy 2. advance. advance. Phase Two of the Revolution; Jacobin Revolt and the Establishment of a Republic 1792-93 1792-93 Because of the war the Jacobins (Radicals) were Because able to seize control of the assembly and remove the King from office. the Jacobins killed over 1000 people they claimed were counter-revolutionaries. counter-revolutionaries Radicals called for the National Convention to Radicals National rewrite the Constitution. rewrite The National Convention abolished Monarchy and The declared France a Republic. Republic The National Convention convicted Louis XVI of treason and executed him in 1793. XVI Phase Three of the French Revolution; The Reign of Terror; 1793-1795 The Britain, Spain, and Portugal joined Britain, Prussia and Austria in an alliance against France (The First Coalition) against 1. These countries feared the 1. democratic revolution might spread to their countries. spread 2. France suffered a string of 2. defeats. defeats. Counter-Revolutionaries also plotted against the National Convention against 1. Peasants were upset by the 1. beheading of the King. beheading 2. Priests would not accept 2. control of the church by the government. government. The National Convention formed the Committee of Public Safety Public 1. Because of threats from without and within (First 1. Coalition & counter revolutionaries) Coalition 2. The Committee of Public Safety formed an 2. emergency government with the power of dictatorship. dictatorship. 3.Maximilian Robespierre a Jacobin became head of the committee. the Maximilian Robespierre Maximilian 4. To stop the counter-revolution the committee began the Reign of Terror. Reign A. 500,000 A. arrested. arrested. B. 40,000 B. executed on the guillotine. the 5. The Committee used Mass Mobilization (the whole society Mobilization helps defeat the enemy) to deal with invading armies. with A. France drives out its A. enemies. enemies. B. By 1794 France is B. taking the offensive. taking Fall of Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety. Committee 1. When the Republic seemed 1. out of danger some members of the convention called for an end to the bloodshed. to A. Robespierre had those A. members sent to the guillotine. members 2. Other members of the National Convention began to fear for their own safety. to A. They turned on A. Robespierre, he and many of his followers were guillotined. guillotined. 3. Jacobins lost control and the Reign of Terror came to an end. came Members of the wealthier bourgeoisie took control of the National Convention. National Phase four of the French Revolution; Establishment of the Conservative Directory; 1795-99 1795-99 In 1795 the National In Convention was controlled by the Bourgeoisie. Bourgeoisie. The Convention put into effect the Constitution Year III. 1795 III. 1. The Constitution gave the middle and upper 1. classes control of the government. classes 2. Voters (had to own property and be taxpayers) 2. selected electors. Electors selected the legislative assembly. The legislative assembly selected the Directory. selected A. The Directory was 5 man executive body. The Napoleonic Revolution The The Directory faced many problems and became The unpopular. unpopular. Napoleon Bonaparte a successful general became Napoleon very popular. very French suffered defeats in Germany & Italy 1. The Directory faced threats of a coup d’ etat (quick 1. overthrow of government by a small group). overthrow Napoleon Seized power in France by a Coup d’ etat France 1. Napoleon had 1. offered his help to those seeking to overthrow the directory. directory. 2. He and 500 of his 2. troops occupied one chamber of the legislative assembly. legislative 3. The second 3. chamber voted an end to the directory. to The Constitution of the Year VII VII The new government was called a republic but was The actually a dictatorship. actually The executive Branch had three Consuls. Napoleon The was First Consul. was A. As First Consul Napoleon assumed dictatorial A. powers. powers. Bonaparte decides to make himself emperor himself 1. The French people vote their approval of The Napoleon as emperor. Emperor of the French 1804. 1804. 2. Napoleon’s soldiers brought order to France. 3. The Catholic Church had opposed the French The Revolution, but Napoleon was able to get the backing of the French Catholics and the Pope. backing Napoleon still kept the church under state control. Napoleonic Code Napoleonic Made the law Made clear and consistent. consistent. Napoleon expands the empire. Napoleon Within a few years Napoleon had expanded his Within empire to include most of Europe. empire After the British under Horatio Nelson defeated the After French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar, in Battle in 1805, Napoleon gave up on invading Britain. 1805, Napoleon turned to economic warfare. Napoleon tried to keep British goods out of European Napoleon ports with a blockade (Continental System). ports Napoleon’s fortunes start to turn turn In 1812 Russia refused to go along with the blockade In of British goods. of Napoleon felt that if he did not subdue Russia other Napoleon countries might revolt. countries Napoleon invades Russia in 1812. (Big Mistake) The Russians burned everything as they retreated. The (scorched earth) (scorched The French got to Moscow but it was burned. Winter set in and the French were forced to retreat. The Russians attacked the French troops as they The retreated. retreated. Napoleon lost 4/5ths of his troops in the retreat. Napoleon was forced to retreat almost to France. Allied armies, the Grand Alliance defeated Napoleon Allied at Leipzig, Saxony (a German state) in 1813 in the Battle of Nations. Battle In 1814 the allies (Grand Alliance) were in Paris. The victors restored the French Throne to the Bourbon family (Louis XVIII) family Napoleon was Napoleon exiled to Elba an island off the coast of Italy. of Napoleon’s brief comeback(The 100 days) (The Napoleon returned from exile in 1815 and won Napoleon widespread support. widespread The king’s soldiers deserted to Napoleon and he took The Paris. Paris. To avoid war Napoleon announced that France wanted no To more territory. more The European allies (Prussia, Britain, and the The Netherlands) didn’t buy it and advanced toward France. Netherlands) Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo in the Austrian Napoleon Netherlands in 1815. Netherlands Napoleon was placed under house arrest on the island of Napoleon St. Helena. He died there in 1821. St. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/25/2011 for the course HIST 058 taught by Professor Babice during the Fall '10 term at Everglades.

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