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World History Ch. 10 sec. 3-5

World History Ch. 10 sec. 3-5 - Unifying Italy Unifying...

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Unformatted text preview: Unifying Italy Unifying What was Giuseppe Mazzini and what did he want to do? did He was a revolutionary determined to bring about He a unified Italy. unified Who was the shrewd politician who did the most Who to bring about a unified Italy? to Count Camillo Cavour What was the major obstacle to Italian unity? Frequent warfare and foreign rule had led people Frequent to identify with local regions. to How did the Congress of Vienna address Italian nationalism? Italian They ignored the nationalists who hoped to They end centuries of foreign rule. end What became of the nationalist revolts that What exploded across northern Italy from 1820exploded 1848? The rebels were crushed by Austrian troops. What did Mazzini do in 1830? He founded Young Italy, a group that hoped to He Young group create a unified Italy. He set up a revolutionary republic in Rome that was crushed by the French. crushed How was Count Camillo Cavour like Bismarck? Bismarck? He was a monarchist that believed in He Realpolitik, and he was a shrewd politician willing to use most any means to reach his ends. ends. What were two main goals of Cavour? He wanted to improve the economy by He supporting free trade, building railroads, and improving farming. Next he wanted to end Austria’s power in Italy and to annex Lombardy and Venetia. Lombardy Why did Cavour negotiate a secret deal with Napoleon III in 1858? deal He wanted France to support him if he He went to war with Austria, which Sardinia Sardinia did. This enabled Sardinia to annex several Italian states. several Who were the Red Shirts and what did Who Red they do? they They were a group of revolutionaries led They by Giuseppe Garibaldi, an ally of Mazzini, Giuseppe an that with the help of Cavour over took the southern states of Sicily and Naples. southern Cavour feared Garibaldi would set up his Cavour own state in the south. own The Sardinians overran the Papal states and linked up with Garibaldi and his forces in Naples. linked In a patriotic move Garibaldi turned over In Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel. Victor In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was crowned In king of Italy. king After the Austro-Prussian War Italy After acquired Venetia. acquired During the Franco Prussian War in 1870, During France was forced to withdraw its troops from Rome. For the first time since the fall of the Roman empire Italy was a unified land. land. What was the main challenge that faced the new nation of Italy? the Strong regional rivalries left Italy unable to solve Strong critical national issues. critical What two regions had the greatest differences? The North and the South were very different. The The North was richer with more cities, while the South was more rural, poor, and the farmland was exhausted. exhausted. How was the new government of a unified Italy organized? Italy It was a constitutional monarchy with a two- house legislature. The upper house was selected house by the King Victor Emmanuel. The lower house was elected, but (unlike Germany) few people could vote and any bill passed by the lower house could be vetoed by the upper house. house In the late 1800s unrest increased in Italy. Radicals struggled Italy. the against Radicals struggled against the conservative government. conservative Socialist organized strikes. Anarchists, people who wanted to abolish people all government, turned to sabotage and violence. violence. Slowly the government extended suffrage Slowly to more men and passed laws to improve social conditions. social Emigration, people moving away from their people homeland, to places like the United States relieved some of the pressure of overpopulation and improved living conditions in Italy. conditions Nationalism Threatens Old Empires Empires What family had led the Holy Roman Empire for nearly 400 years? Empire Hapsburgs Who dissolved the Holy Roman Empire? Napoleon Why did nationalism bring new strength Why to some countries and weaken others? to In Germany where most of the people In shared a common culture and language it strengthened the country. In Eastern and Central Europe the Austrian Hapsburg and Ottoman Empires ruled lands with diverse ethnic groups. These groups began to develop nationalistic feelings and wanted to be independent of the In 1800 what was the oldest ruling dynasty in Europe? in Hapsburg Who ruled Austria after the Congress of Who Vienna? Vienna? Francis I Who was the foreign minister? Metternich What was their philosophy for governing? “Rule and change nothing” Conservative By mid 1800s what percentage of people in By the Austrian Empire were German speaking? the 25% When did Francis Joseph inherit the Hapsburg throne and how long did he rule? throne 1848-1916 What happened to Austria in 1859? It suffered a humiliating defeat to France and It Sardinia. Sardinia. What reforms did Frances Joseph make after What the war and what were the results of the reforms? reforms? He created a new constitution with a He legislative body. The result did not end calls for reform because the legislature was dominated by German speaking people leaving other ethnic groups unsatisfied. leaving What happened to Austria in 1866? What Lost a war to Prussia What group pressured the government for What changes? changes? Hungarians Who was Ferenc Deak and what new political Who Ferenc power did he create? power He was a moderate Hungarian leader and he He worked out a compromise to create the Dual Monarchy of Austria Hungary. Monarchy Austria Austria and Hungary were independent of each Austria other with what exceptions? other Francis Joseph was Emperor of Austria and Francis King of Hungary. They also shared ministers of What ethnic groups were still unsatisfied? unsatisfied? Slavic groups especially Czechs in Bohemia. What regions did the Ottoman Empire What Ottoman include? include? Eastern Europe, Balkans to North Africa, and Eastern the Middle East. the What group won autonomy within the What Ottoman empire? Ottoman Serbia What group won independence from the What Ottoman empire? Greece The ethnic rivalries in the Ottoman Empire caused the European powers to view it as the “sick man of Europe.” of European powers eagerly scrambled to European divide up Ottoman lands. divide Russia pushed south toward the Black Sea Russia and Istanbul. and Austria Hungary took control of Bosnia and Austria Herzegovina. Herzegovina. Britain and France set their sights on other Britain Ottoman lands in the Middle East and North Africa. Africa. The Balkan Powder Keg The With many ethnic revolts and wars over the Ottoman With Empire, the Balkans became known as a Powder Keg. Keg. This powder Keg becomes a major factor in the This beginning of World War I. beginning Russia Reform & Reaction Reaction What kept Russia from modernizing? What Tsars imprisoned critics or sent them into Tsars exile. exile. What two continents does Russia spread What over? over? Europe and Asia What did Western Europe dislike about What Russia? Russia? Autocratic government with expansionist Autocratic aims. aims. What was the great obstacle to change in What Russia? Russia? Its ridged social structure, land owning If a serf were to work in a factory what would happen to their wages? would Most of their wages went to the nobles. What year did Alexander II come to the throne What and what war was being fought? and 1855 The Crimean War What were the sides on the Crimean War, What what country lost the war and what did the war reveal about Russia? war Russia versus the Ottoman Turks, Britain and Russia France. Russia’s defeat revealed how backward it was. backward Getting pressure from liberal reformers what decision did Alexander II make in 1861? decision To emancipate the serfs. To emancipate What was another important reform of Alexander What II? II? He set up a system of local government or He Zemstvos. They repaired roads, ran schools an Zemstvos They helped agriculture. helped What did liberal terrorist do on March 13, 1881? Assassinated Alexander II How did Alexander III respond to his father’s assassination? assassination? He wiped out the liberals, increased the He power of the secret police, started the program of Russification- or the Russification or suppression of non-Russian cultures. Only the Russian language could be used Only and only the Russian Orthodox Church could be practiced. could What were pogroms? What pogroms? Officially condoned mob attacks on Officially Jewish communities in Russia between 1881 and 1921. 1881 What group applauded industrialization in Russia and what group was against it? and Government officials and businessmen were for Government industrialization and the nobles and the peasants were against it fearing the changes it would bring. were The mass move of workers to the cities resulted The in horrible conditions both at work and at home. in Socialists began to hand out Marxist pamphlets. What war broke out in 1904 and who was the Russian leader? the The Russo Japanese War. Nicholas II was the The Russo Nicholas ruler of Russia. ruler What was Bloody Sunday? What Bloody A peaceful march led by an Orthodox priest peaceful toward the Tsar’s winter palace ended up with the tsar’s troops opening fire on the protesters. tsar’s What was the result of Bloody Sunday? Sunday? The Revolution of 1905 The Revolution What did the Revolution of 1905 force What Nicholas II to issue? Nicholas The October Manifesto, declaring The October declaring “freedom of person, conscience, speech, assembly and union.” assembly What was the Duma? What Duma? An elected national legislature called by An Nicholas II to quiet calls for reform. Nicholas Who did Nicholas II appoint as Prime Minister? Minister? Peter Stolypin What did he do? Arrested protesters, allowed pogroms and Arrested executed critics of the government. executed What did Peter Stolypin come to realize? That Russia needed Reform not just That repression. repression. He did make moderate reforms but they did He not go far enough and he was assassinated in 1911. 1911. By 1914, Russia was still an autocracy but By ...
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