Unformatted text preview: Unifying Italy
Unifying What was Giuseppe Mazzini and what
did he want to do?
did He was a revolutionary determined to bring about
He a unified Italy.
unified Who was the shrewd politician who did the most
Who to bring about a unified Italy?
to Count Camillo Cavour What was the major obstacle to Italian unity? Frequent warfare and foreign rule had led people
Frequent to identify with local regions.
to How did the Congress of Vienna address
Italian They ignored the nationalists who hoped to
They end centuries of foreign rule.
end What became of the nationalist revolts that
What exploded across northern Italy from 1820exploded
1848? The rebels were crushed by Austrian troops. What did Mazzini do in 1830? He founded Young Italy, a group that hoped to
group create a unified Italy. He set up a
revolutionary republic in Rome that was
crushed by the French.
crushed How was Count Camillo Cavour like
Bismarck? He was a monarchist that believed in
He Realpolitik, and he was a shrewd politician
willing to use most any means to reach his
ends. What were two main goals of Cavour? He wanted to improve the economy by
He supporting free trade, building railroads,
and improving farming. Next he wanted to
end Austria’s power in Italy and to annex
Lombardy and Venetia.
Lombardy Why did Cavour negotiate a secret
deal with Napoleon III in 1858?
deal He wanted France to support him if he
He went to war with Austria, which Sardinia
did. This enabled Sardinia to annex
several Italian states.
several Who were the Red Shirts and what did
Red they do?
they They were a group of revolutionaries led
They by Giuseppe Garibaldi, an ally of Mazzini,
that with the help of Cavour over took the
southern states of Sicily and Naples.
southern Cavour feared Garibaldi would set up his
Cavour own state in the south.
own The Sardinians overran the Papal states and
linked up with Garibaldi and his forces in Naples.
linked In a patriotic move Garibaldi turned over
In Naples and Sicily to Victor Emmanuel.
Victor In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was crowned
In king of Italy.
king After the Austro-Prussian War Italy
After acquired Venetia.
acquired During the Franco Prussian War in 1870,
During France was forced to withdraw its troops
from Rome. For the first time since the fall
of the Roman empire Italy was a unified
land. What was the main challenge that faced
the new nation of Italy?
the Strong regional rivalries left Italy unable to solve
Strong critical national issues.
critical What two regions had the greatest differences? The North and the South were very different. The
The North was richer with more cities, while the South
was more rural, poor, and the farmland was
exhausted. How was the new government of a unified
Italy It was a constitutional monarchy with a two- house legislature. The upper house was selected
by the King Victor Emmanuel. The lower house
was elected, but (unlike Germany) few people
could vote and any bill passed by the lower
house could be vetoed by the upper house.
house In the late 1800s unrest increased in
Italy. Radicals struggled Italy. the
Radicals struggled against the
conservative Socialist organized strikes. Anarchists, people who wanted to abolish
people all government, turned to sabotage and
violence. Slowly the government extended suffrage
Slowly to more men and passed laws to improve
social Emigration, people moving away from their
people homeland, to places like the United States
relieved some of the pressure of
overpopulation and improved living
conditions in Italy.
Empires What family had led the Holy Roman
Empire for nearly 400 years?
Empire Hapsburgs Who dissolved the Holy Roman Empire? Napoleon Why did nationalism bring new strength
Why to some countries and weaken others?
to In Germany where most of the people
In shared a common culture and language it
strengthened the country. In Eastern and
Central Europe the Austrian Hapsburg
and Ottoman Empires ruled lands with
diverse ethnic groups. These groups
began to develop nationalistic feelings
and wanted to be independent of the In 1800 what was the oldest ruling dynasty
in Hapsburg Who ruled Austria after the Congress of
Vienna? Francis I Who was the foreign minister? Metternich What was their philosophy for governing? “Rule and change nothing” Conservative By mid 1800s what percentage of people in
By the Austrian Empire were German speaking?
the 25% When did Francis Joseph inherit the Hapsburg
throne and how long did he rule?
throne 1848-1916 What happened to Austria in 1859? It suffered a humiliating defeat to France and
Sardinia. What reforms did Frances Joseph make after
What the war and what were the results of the
reforms? He created a new constitution with a
He legislative body. The result did not end calls
for reform because the legislature was
dominated by German speaking people
leaving other ethnic groups unsatisfied.
leaving What happened to Austria in 1866?
What Lost a war to Prussia What group pressured the government for
changes? Hungarians Who was Ferenc Deak and what new political
Ferenc power did he create?
power He was a moderate Hungarian leader and he
He worked out a compromise to create the Dual
Monarchy of Austria Hungary.
Austria Austria and Hungary were independent of each
Austria other with what exceptions?
other Francis Joseph was Emperor of Austria and
Francis King of Hungary. They also shared ministers of What ethnic groups were still
unsatisfied? Slavic groups especially Czechs in Bohemia. What regions did the Ottoman Empire
include? Eastern Europe, Balkans to North Africa, and
Eastern the Middle East.
the What group won autonomy within the
What Ottoman empire?
Ottoman Serbia What group won independence from the
What Ottoman empire? Greece The ethnic rivalries in the Ottoman Empire caused
the European powers to view it as the “sick man
of European powers eagerly scrambled to
European divide up Ottoman lands.
divide Russia pushed south toward the Black Sea
Russia and Istanbul.
and Austria Hungary took control of Bosnia and
Herzegovina. Britain and France set their sights on other
Britain Ottoman lands in the Middle East and North
Africa. The Balkan Powder Keg
The With many ethnic revolts and wars over the Ottoman
With Empire, the Balkans became known as a Powder
Keg. This powder Keg becomes a major factor in the
This beginning of World War I.
beginning Russia Reform
Reaction What kept Russia from modernizing?
What Tsars imprisoned critics or sent them into
exile. What two continents does Russia spread
over? Europe and Asia What did Western Europe dislike about
Russia? Autocratic government with expansionist
aims. What was the great obstacle to change in
Russia? Its ridged social structure, land owning If a serf were to work in a factory what
would happen to their wages?
would Most of their wages went to the nobles. What year did Alexander II come to the throne
What and what war was being fought?
and 1855 The Crimean War What were the sides on the Crimean War,
What what country lost the war and what did the
war reveal about Russia?
war Russia versus the Ottoman Turks, Britain and
Russia France. Russia’s defeat revealed how
backward it was.
backward Getting pressure from liberal reformers what
decision did Alexander II make in 1861?
decision To emancipate the serfs.
To emancipate What was another important reform of Alexander
II? He set up a system of local government or
He Zemstvos. They repaired roads, ran schools an
helped What did liberal terrorist do on March 13, 1881? Assassinated Alexander II How did Alexander III respond to his father’s
assassination? He wiped out the liberals, increased the
He power of the secret police, started the
program of Russification- or the
suppression of non-Russian cultures. Only the Russian language could be used
Only and only the Russian Orthodox Church
could be practiced.
could What were pogroms?
pogroms? Officially condoned mob attacks on
Officially Jewish communities in Russia between
1881 and 1921.
1881 What group applauded industrialization in Russia
and what group was against it?
and Government officials and businessmen were for
Government industrialization and the nobles and the peasants
were against it fearing the changes it would bring.
were The mass move of workers to the cities resulted
The in horrible conditions both at work and at home.
in Socialists began to hand out Marxist pamphlets. What war broke out in 1904 and who was
the Russian leader?
the The Russo Japanese War. Nicholas II was the
Nicholas ruler of Russia.
ruler What was Bloody Sunday?
Bloody A peaceful march led by an Orthodox priest
peaceful toward the Tsar’s winter palace ended up with the
tsar’s troops opening fire on the protesters.
tsar’s What was the result of Bloody
Sunday? The Revolution of 1905
The Revolution What did the Revolution of 1905 force
What Nicholas II to issue?
Nicholas The October Manifesto, declaring
declaring “freedom of person, conscience, speech,
assembly and union.”
assembly What was the Duma?
Duma? An elected national legislature called by
An Nicholas II to quiet calls for reform.
Nicholas Who did Nicholas II appoint as Prime
Minister? Peter Stolypin What did he do? Arrested protesters, allowed pogroms and
Arrested executed critics of the government.
executed What did Peter Stolypin come to realize? That Russia needed Reform not just
repression. He did make moderate reforms but they did
He not go far enough and he was assassinated in
1911. By 1914, Russia was still an autocracy but
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