09_part2c - Part 2.C Introduction to...

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Part 2.C: Introduction to Thermochemistry [SB&VW-14.1-14.6] Until now, we have specified the heat given to the devices analyzed, and not concerned ourselves with how this heat might be produced. In this section, we examine the issue of how we obtain the heat needed for work production. For the most part, this is from converting chemical energy into heat, so the discussion will be on reacting mixtures of gas which are involved in chemical combustion processes. The topic addressed is “thermochemistry”, which is the combining of thermodynamics with chemistry to predict such items as how much heat is released from a chemical reaction. This is the “Q” or “q” that we have used in the cycle analysis. The principal components of the approach are use of a chemical balance plus the steady flow energy equation (SFEE) which equates the sum of shaft work (from) and heat transfer (to) a control volume to the difference in control volume inlet and exit enthalpy fluxes. 2.C.1 Fuels There are a wide variety of fuels used for aerospace power and propulsion. A primary one is jet fuel (octane, essentially kerosene) which has the chemical formula CH 18 . Other fuels we 8 consider are hydrogen ( H 2 ) and methane ( CH 4 ). The chemical process in which a fuel, for example methane, is burned consists of (on a very basic level—there are many intermediate reactions that need to be accounted for when computations of the combustion process are carried out): CH 4 + 2O 2 CO 2 + 2H O . 2 (Reactants) (Products) The reactions we describe are carried out in air, which can be approximated as 21% O 2 and 79% N 2 . This composition is referred to as “theoretical air”. There are other components of air (for example Argon, which is roughly 1%), but the results given using the theoretical air approximation are more than adequate for our purposes. With this definition, for each mole of O 2 , 3.76 (79/21) moles of N 2 are involved: CH 4 + 2O 2 + 23 76 ) N CO 2 + 2H O + 7.52N 2 ( . 2 2 Even if the nitrogen is not part of the combustion process, it leaves the combustion chamber at the same temperature as the other products, and this change in state (change in enthalpy) needs to be accounted for in the steady flow energy equation. At the high temperatures achieved in internal combustion engines (aircraft and automobile) reaction does occur between the nitrogen and oxygen, which gives rise to oxides of nitrogen, although we will not consider these reactions. The condition at which the mixture of fuel and air is such that both completely participate in the reaction is called stoichiometric. In gas turbines, excess air is often used so that the 2C-1
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temperatures of the gas exiting the combustor is kept to within desired limits (see Figures A-8, A- 9, A-11 in Part 1 for data on these limits.) Muddy points Why is there 3.76 N 2 ? (MP 2C.1) What is the most effective way to solve for the number of moles in the reactions? (MP 2C.2) 2.C.2 Fuel-Air Ratio The reaction for aeroengine fuel at stoichiometric conditions is: CH + 12.5 O 2 + 1 2 5 ( 376 ) N 8 CO 2 + 9 H O + 47.0 N . .
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09_part2c - Part 2.C Introduction to...

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