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Unformatted text preview: ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME Symptomatic organ dysfunction that results from increased intraabdominal Symptomatic pressure (IAP) pressure Increased IAP is an under-recognized source of morbidity and mortality. 1-day point-prevalence observational trial conducted in 13 medical ICUs of six 1-day countries with 97 patients, 8% had IAP > 20mmHg. 1 The incidence of ACS in trauma patients is estimated to be between 2 and 9 The percent.2 percent. Crit Care Med 2005; 33:315. 1 Am J Surg 2002; 184:538. 2 ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME ETIOLOGY Massive volume resuscitation in the leading cause of ACS. Massive Inflammatory states with capillary leak, fluid sequestration, inadequate tissue Inflammatory perfusion, and lactic acidosis can develop ACS. Gastric overdistention following endoscopy has resulted in ACS. ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME PATHOPHYSIOLOGY The IAP is usually 0 mmHg during spontaneous respiration, and is slightly The positive in the patient on mechanical ventilation. positive IAP increases in direct relation to body mass index, and in one report, supine IAP hospitalized patients had a mean baseline value of 6.5 mmHg. hospitalized The compliance of the abdominal wall generally limits the rise in IAP but The increases rapidly after a critical IAP. increases Critical IAP varies from patient to patient, based on abdominal wall compliance Critical on perfusion gradient. IAH often defined as IAP > 12mmHg. IAH Previous pregnancy, cirrhosis, morbid obesity, may increase abdominal wall Previous compliance and can be protective . compliance ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ³ Intracranial pressure Á Cerebral perfusion pressure CARDIAC Hypovolemia Á Cardiac output Á Venous return ³ PCWP and CVP ³ SVR PULMONARY ³ Intrathoracic pressure ³ Airway pressures Á Compliance Á PaO2 ³ PaCO2 ³ Shunt fraction ³ Vd/Vt GASTROINTESTINAL GASTROINTESTINAL Á Celiac blood flow Á SMA blood flow Á Mucosal blood flow Á pHi RENAL RENAL Á Urinary output Á Renal blood flow Á GFR HEPATIC Á Portal blood flow Á Mitochondrial function Á Lactate clearance ABDOMINAL WALL WALL Á Compliance Á Rectus sheath blood flow Curr Opin Crit Care 2005; 11:333 ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME 50 mL of sterile saline is instilled into the bladder via the aspiration port of the 50 Foley catheter with the drainage tube clamped. An 18-gauge needle attached to a pressure transducer is then inserted in the aspiration port, and the pressure is measured. The transducer should be zeroed at the level of the pubic symphysis. measured. Curr Opin Crit Care 2005; 11:333 ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME MANAGEMENT PROPOSED GRADING OF ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME Grade Pressure (mmHg) Management I 10-15 Maintenance of normovolemia II 16-25 Volume administration III 26-35 Decompression IV >35 Re-exploration Abdominal perfusion pressure (APP): Abdominal perfusion pressure (APP): APP = MAP ­ IAP In one retrospective study, the inability to maintain an APP above 50 mmHg predicted mortality with greater sensitivity and specificity than either IAP or MAP alone . Surg Clin North Am 1996; 76:833. ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME OPERATIVE DECOMPRESSION Vacuum­assisted temporary abdominal closure device: thin plastic sheet, a sterile towel, closed suction drains, and a large adherent operative drape. This dressing system permits increases in intra­abdominal volume, without a dramatic elevation in IAP. ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME SUMMARY ACS is a clinical entity caused by an acute, progressive increase in IAP. ACS Multiple organ systems are affected, usually in a graded fashion. The gut is the organ most sensitive to IAH. Treatment involves expedient decompression of the abdomen. Since this syndrome affects patients who are already physiologically Since compromised, a high degree of suspicion and a low threshold for checking bladder pressures are required to prevent the mortality associated with this complex problem. ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME ABDOMINAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME REFERENCES AND READINGS Sugrue, M. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Curr Opin Crit Care 2005; 11:333. Bailey, J, Shapiro, MJ. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Crit Care 2000; 4:23. Malbrain, ML, Chiumello, D, Pelosi, P, et al. Incidence and prognosis of intraabdominal hypertension in a mixed population of critically ill patients: a multiple-center epidemiological study. Crit Care Med 2005; 33:315. Kron, IL, Harman, PK, Nolan, SP. The measurement of intra-abdominal pressure as a criterion for abdominal re-exploration. Ann Surg 1984; 199:28. Hong, JJ, Cohn, SM, Perez, JM, et al. Prospective study of the incidence and outcome of intra-abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome . Br J Surg 2002; 89:591. Balogh, Z, McKinley, BA, Cocanour, CS, et al. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is an elusive early complication of traumatic shock resuscitation. Am J Surg 2002; 184:538. Cheatham, ML, White, MW, Sagraves, SG, Johnson, JL. Abdominal perfusion pressure: a superior parameter in the assessment of intra-abdominal hypertension . J Trauma 2000; 49:621. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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