acbase - ❚ Hemoglobin Primary buffer against carbonic...

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ACID/BASE BALANCE D. C. Mikulecky
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ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS  CAN BE  PROTON DONORS OR ACCEPTORS PROTON DONORS ARE ACIDS PROTON ACCEPTORS ARE BASES ACIDS AND BASES REACT TO  NEUTRALIZE EACH OTHER FORMING  SALTS
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ACID/BASE REACTIONS HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O ACID + BASE SALT + WATER
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ACID/BASE BALANCE AND THE BLOOD Acidic Alkaline (Basic) [OH - ] [H + ] Neutral pH 0 14 7 Acidosis Alkalosis Normal 7.35-7.45 Venous Blood Arterial Blood 6.8 8.0 7.4
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CHEMICAL BUFFER SYSTEMS H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 - H + Na + Cl - Add HCl Na + Cl - H + Cl - Unbuffered Salt Solution All protons are free H 2 CO 3 : HCO 3 - Buffer Add HCl H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 - + H + Protons taken up as Carbonic Acid
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CHEMICAL BUFFER SYSTEMS Weak acid/salt systems act as a “sponge”  for protons As acidity tends to increase they take  protons up As acidity tends to decrease they release  protons
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CHEMICAL BUFFER SYSTEMS Carbonic acid/Bicarbonate: Primary buffer  against non-carbonic acid changes Proteins:  Primary ICF buffer, also ECF
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Unformatted text preview: ❚ Hemoglobin: Primary buffer against carbonic acid changes ❚ Phosphate: Urinary buffer, also ICF ROLE OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN ACID/BASE BALANCE ❚ Alterations in ventilation alter the rate of excretion of carbon dioxide ❚ Alterations in the rate of carbon dioxide excretion cause alterations in pH through carbonic acid ❚ This way the respiratory system can help control non-respiratory acidosis and alkalosis Sources of acidosis ❚ Metabolic: Severe diarrhea, Diabetes mellitus, strenuous exercise, uremia ❚ Respiratory: hypoventilation Sources of alkalosis ❚ Metabolic: Vomiting, ingestion of alkaline drugs ❚ Respiratory: hyperventilation Renal regulation of blood acidity ❚ Proton excretion ❚ Bicarbonate excretion ❚ Ammonia secretion...
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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acbase - ❚ Hemoglobin Primary buffer against carbonic...

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