15 - Ethanol Part2

15 - Ethanol Part2 - Alcohol (Ethanol) Ethanol...

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Alcohol (Ethanol)
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Ethanol - Most widely used drug. -all ethanol is produced by the enzymatic action of  yeasts on carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen. -chemical formula:C 2 H  5 OH. -flammable. -toxic. -distinctive odor. -in alcoholic beverages .
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Ethanol concentration in some drinks:   Beer,lager,stout,cider:                                     3-6% Table wine (unfortified):                                  9-12% Fortified wines(sherry,port,vermouth):             17-21% Spirits(whiskey,brandy,gin,rum,vodka):           35-45%  
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Measurement of alcohol concentration in units: 1 unite of alcohol=10 g (pure ethanol)                               =12.78 ml (pure ethanol) 1 unit of alcohol=300 ml of beer                             =100 ml of table wine                              =25 ml of spirits Safe limits for drinking to avoid liver damage: 21 units/week for a man. 14 units for a woman.
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Spectrum of alcohol use: 1- non-drinkers. 2-Social drinkers:  ≤  4 units/day 3-heavy drinkers: men>7 units/day                                women>5 units/day 4-binge drinkers. 5-alcohol abusers. 6-alcohol dependent.
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Absorption of alcohol: - 20%   by stomach -80% by duodenum and jejunum -Rate of absorption is affected by: 1-Gastric emptying:    fatty food,drugs : delay  emptying: delay  absorption. empty stomach,alcohol tolerance, gastro- jejunostomy,carbohydrates,carbonated beverages accelerates  emptying: accelerates  absorption.
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Continue…… 2-concentration of swallowed alcohol: • A conc. Of 20% of alcohol in stomach: rapid  absorption. • A higher conc. irritation of gastric  ⇒⇒ mucosa increase in mucus secretion delay  ⇒⇒ ⇒⇒ absorption. Alcohol taken on an empty stomach it needs 30-90 min.  to be fully absorbed to the portal blood stream. 
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Distribution : •  Distributed through portal blood stream to all tissues. • 
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15 - Ethanol Part2 - Alcohol (Ethanol) Ethanol...

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