25 - Heroin - BY MAHER SAWILEH MAHER OBJECTIVES STATISTICS...

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BY: BY: MAHER SAWILEH MAHER SAWILEH
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OBJECTIVES STATISTICS HISTORY SYNTHESIS Pharmacokinetics AND Effect DETECTION AND TREATMENT
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Statistics Global users of heroin are estimated at between 15 million and 21 million people aged 15–64 The mean age of first use of heroin 21.3 in 1998 84,000 visits to emergency rooms in the U.S. due to heroin $150 and $200 per day to maintain a heroin addiction retail price of brown heroin varies from 14.5 per gram to €110 per gram . The price of white heroin range between €27 and €110 per gram
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History Diacetylmorphine was first synthesized in 1874 by Alder Wright, an English chemist . From 1898 through to 1910 diacetylmorphine was marketed under the name heroin as a non-addictive morphine substitute and cough suppressant . Bayer marketed heroin as a cure for morphine addiction before it was discovered that it rapidly metabolizes into morphine. As such, heroin is essentially a quicker acting form of morphine. And now it was considered as Schedule 1 substance ; it has no approved medical use in the United States and its medical use is not acceptable.
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Synthesis It is synthesized form of morphine, derivative of opium poppy. Does not occur naturally but it is produced by acetylation of morphine which leads to 3 folds increase in its potency. Opium poppy morphine heroin
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Heroin dealers often add substances such as sugar, starch, quinine, and powdered milk to heroin to increase profits, which increases the risk of overdose or death. Very often, users are not aware of precisely what they are putting into their bodies
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About Heroin is one of the strong agonist of opioids that acts on endogenous opioid receptor that are spread in brain, spinal cord and gut.
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