Body Temp. - Body Temperature And Its Regulation Normal...

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Body Temperature And Its Regulation Normal Body Temperature : The temperature of the deep tissues of the body which is known as the core temperature remains almost exactly constant except when a person develops a febrile illness.On the other hand the skin temperature rises & falls with the temperature of the surroundings. The core body temperature can be measured either orally or rectally. The oral temperature is normally 0.5 0 C lower than the rectal temp.,
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but is affected by many factors including ingestion of hot or cold fluids & mouth breathing. The average normal oral temperature in young adults measured in the morning is 37C with a range between 36.3 and 37.1 C.
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Physiological variations in body temperature 1. Normally, the body temp. undergoes a regular circadian fluctuation of about 0.6 0 C being lowest in the morning & highest in the evening. 2. In Woman there is a monthly cycle of temp. variation characterized by a rise in basal temp. of about 0.5 0 C at the time of ovulation &during the second half of the menstrual cycle.A similar rise occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy.
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3. In children temp. regulation is less precise and they may normally have a temp. that is 0.5 0 C above the normal for adults. 4. During exercise, excess heat is produced in the body and the rectal temp. can normally rise to as high as 40 0 C . 5. Emotional excitement slightly increases the body temp. probably due to unconscious tensing of muscles. 6. When the metabolic rate is high the body temp. is chronically elevated by as much as 0.5 0 C and vice verse. 7. Constitutional hyperthermia.
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The balance between heat production & heat loss : The body temp. is kept constant when the rate of heat production in the body is equal to the rate of heat loss. Heat is produced in the body by the basal rate of metabolism, contraction of skeletal muscles, food ingestion and extra metabolism caused by the slow but prolonged effect of thyroxin on the cells and the rapid but short lived effect of epinephrine, nor epinephrine and sympathetic effects on the cells.
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Most of the heat produced in the body is generated in the organs especially in the liver, the brain the heart and the skeletal muscles especially during exercise. Therefore, heat loss from the body occurs in two steps : A. Conduction of heat from the deeper organs and tissues to the skin. B. Transfer of heat from the skin to the surrounding.
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A.) Heat Conduction to the Skin The skin and the subcutaneous tissues especially the fat form a heat insulator system for the body. This system maintains the normal core temp., although the temp. of the skin may approach the temp.of the surrounding.Blood vessels penetrate the fatty subcutaneous tissues and are distribution beneath the skin. The amount of heat reaching the skin from the deep tissues depends upon the blood flow into the cutaneous blood vessels which is determined by the degree of vasoconstriction of the vessels.This vasoconstriction in turn is controlled almost entirely
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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Body Temp. - Body Temperature And Its Regulation Normal...

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