Hypersensitivity Reactions I,II

Hypersensitivity Reactions I,II - ‫بسم اللة...

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Unformatted text preview: ‫بسم اللة الرحمن‬ ‫الرحيم‬ Immunologic Mechanisms of Tissue Damage of (Immuopathology) Immunopathology Immunopathology Exaggerated immune response may lead to different forms of tissue damage 1) An overactive immune response: produce more damage than it prevents e.g. hypersensitivity reactions and graft rejection 2) Failure of appropriate recognition: as in autoimmune diseases Hypersensitivity Reaction Hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity or allergy * An immune response results in exaggerated reactions harmful to the host * There are four types of hypersensitivity reactions: Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV * Types I, II and III are antibody mediated * Type IV is cell mediated Type I: Immediate hypersensitivity Type * An antigen reacts with cell fixed antibody (Ig E) leading to release of soluble molecules An antigen (allergen) soluble molecules (mediators) * Soluble molecules cause the manifestation of disease * Systemic life threatening; anaphylactic shock * Local atopic allergies; bronchial asthma, hay fever and food allergies Pathogenic mechanisms Pathogenic * First exposure to allergen Allergen stimulates formation of antibody (Ig E type) Ig E fixes, by its Fc portion to mast cells and basophiles * Second exposure to the same allergen It bridges between Ig E molecules fixed to mast cellsleading to activation and degranulation of mast cells and release of mediators Pathogenic mechanisms Pathogenic * Three classes of mediators derived from mast cells: !) Preformed mediators stored in granules (histamine) 2) Newly sensitized mediators: leukotrienes, prostaglandins, platelets activating factor 3) Cytokines produced by activated mast cells, basophils e.g. TNF, IL3, IL­4, IL­5 IL­13, chemokines * These mediators cause: smooth muscle contraction, mucous secretion and bronchial spasm, vasodilatation, vascular permeability and edema Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis * Systemic form of Type I hypersensitivity * Exposure to allergen to which a person is previously sensitized * Allergens: Drugs: penicillin Serum injection : anti­diphtheritic or ant­tetanic serum anesthesia or insect venom * Clinical picture: Shock due to sudden decrease of blood pressure, respiratory distress due to bronhospasm, cyanosis, edema, urticaria * Treatment: corticosteroids injection, epinephrine, antihistamines Atopy Atopy * Local form of type I hypersensitivity * Exposure to certain allergens that induce production of specific Ig E * Allergens : Inhalants:dust mite faeces, tree or pollens, mould spor. Ingestants: milk, egg, fish, choclate Contactants: wool, nylon, animal fur Drugs: penicillin, salicylates, anesthesia insect venom * There is a strong familial predisposition to atopic allergy * The predisposition is genetically determined Methods of diagnosis Methods 1) History taking for determining the allergen involved 2) Skin tests: Intradermal injection of battery of different allergens A wheal and flare (erythema) develop at the site of allergen to which the person is allergic 3) Determination of total serum Ig E level 4) Determination of specific Ig E levels to the different allergens Management Management 1) Avoidance of specific allergen responsible for condition 1) Avoidance of specific allergen 2) Hyposensitization: Injection gradually increasing doses of extract of allergen ­ production of Ig G blocking antibody which binds allergen and prevent combination with Ig E ­ It may induce T cell tolerance 3) Drug Therapy: corticosteroids injection, epinephrine, antihistamines Type II: Cytotoxic or Cytolytic Reactions Type * An antibody (Ig G or Ig M) reacts with antigen on the cell surface * This antigen may be part of cell membrane or circulating antigen (or hapten) that attaches to cell membrane Mechanism of Cytolysis Mechanism * Cell lysis results due to : 1) Complement fixation to antigen antibody complex on cell surface The activated complement will lead to cell lysis 2) Phagocytosis is enhanced by the antibody (opsinin) bound to cell antigen leading to opsonization of the target cell Mechanism of cytolysis Mechanism 3) Antibody depended cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): ­ Antibody coated cells e.g. tumour cells, graft cells or infected cells can be killed by cells possess Fc receptors ­ The process different from phagocytosis and independent of complement ­ Cells most active in ADCC are: NK, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils Clinical Conditions Clinical 1) Transfusion reaction due to ABO incompatibility 2) Rh­incompatability (Haemolytic disease of the newborn) 3) Autoimmune diseases The mechanism of tissue damage is cytotoxic reactions e.g. SLE, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, myasthenia gravis, nephrotoxic nephritis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis 4) A non­cytotoxic Type II hypersensitivity is Graves’s disea It is a form of thyroditits in which antibodies are produced against TSH surface receptor This lead to mimic the effect of TSH and stimulate cells to over­ produce thyroid hormones Clinical Conditions Clinical 5­ Graft rejection cytotoxic reactions: In hyperacute rejection the recipient already has performed antibody against the graft 6­ Drug reaction: Penicillin may attach as haptens to RBCs and induce antibodies which are cytotoxic for the cell­drug complex leading to haemolysis Quinine may attach to platelets and the antibodies cause platelets destruction and thrombocytopenic purpura Thanks Thanks ...
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