Metabolism New - Energy balance & metabolic rate...

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    metabolic rate metabolic rate
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Metabolism means changes , it is used to refer to all chemical and energy transformation processes that occur in the body . It is divided into two processes : 1 - anabolism which means formation of proteins, fats, complex with taking up energy that is stored in these compounds . 2 - catabolism which is a complex, slow oxidation of carbohydrates Fats & proteins which produces CO2, H2O and energy that is liberated in small usable amounts . Energy transfer : When pure oxygen is used to burn carbohydrates, fats and proteins outside the body, large amounts of energy are released suddenly in the form of heat. Inside the body, the energy needed by physiological processes is not only heat but : energy to cause muscle contraction or to do secretion by the glands, these processes take place through special enzymes& energy transfer systems which apply the energy liberated by catabolism to the formation of high energy compounds .
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High energy compounds : 1 - high energy phosphate compounds :they include : Adenosine triphosphate (ATP ± Creatine phosphate (CP ± Guanosine triphosphate (GTP Cytidine triphosphate (CTP ± Uridine triphosphate (UTP ± Inosine triphosphate (ITP ± 2 - Acyl-Co A compounds :e.g. Acetyl-Co A which is also called active acetate . The main functions of ATP are :to energize the synthesis of cellular compounds, to energize muscle contraction& active transport across membranes, absorption from intestine or kidneys, formation of glandular secretion and maintainance of Ionic concentration gradient in nerves .
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Units of heat energy : 1 - The calorie :(cal, gram calorie, small calorie, or standard calorie±: it is the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 degree from 15°c to 16°c . 2 - The kilo- calorie (Kcal, the Calorie±: it equals 1000 cal, and is . Energy balance : In the body there is an energy balance between caloric intake , provided by the absorbed food, and energy output. If the caloric intake is less than the energy output, the balance is negative and there is weigh loss by catabolism of glycogen fats .
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the balance is positive, and there is weight gain. to be in energy equilibrium, the energy input must equal the energy output Physical caloric (heat± value of food : It is the amount of energy in Kcal which is liberated by complete oxidation of a food substance outside the body . Oxidation of 1 gram of carbohydrates produces 4.1 KCal/gram Oxidation of 1 gram of fat produces 9.3 KCal/ gram Oxidation of 1 gram of protein produces 5.3 KCal/ gram Physiological caloric value of food : Oxidation of food substances inside the body, it equals : 4.1K Cal/gram of carbohydrate . 9.3
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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Metabolism New - Energy balance & metabolic rate...

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