Nutrition and CVD May 2010

Nutrition and CVD May 2010 - Dietary Intervention and...

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Dietary Intervention and Recommendations in the Prevention of Obesity and Heart Disease Nathan D. Wong, Ph.D., F.A.C.C. Professor and Director Heart Disease Prevention Program, University of California, Irvine
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Dietary Effects on Lipids Seven Countries study showed significant correlation between saturated fat intake and blood cholesterol levels Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials shows lowering saturated fat and cholesterol to reduce total and LDL-C 10- 15% For every 1% increase in intake of saturated fat, blood cholesterol increases 2 mg/dl Soluble fiber intake may provide additional LDL-C response over that of a low-fat diet
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Dietary Effects on Thrombosis Omega-3 fatty acids have antithrombogenic and antiarrhythmic effects, decreased platelet aggregation, and lower triglycerides Eskimos’ cold water fish diet associated with prolonged bleeding times and lower rates of MI; similar findings in Japan, Netherlands, and England Lyon Diet-Heart Study reported increased survival following Mediterranean diet with fish and high in linolenic acid (no lipid differences seen).
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Associations between the percent of calories derived from specific foods and CHD mortality in the 20 Countries Study* Butter Butter 0.546 0.546 All dairy products All dairy products 0.619 0.619 Eggs Eggs 0.592 0.592 Meat and poultry Meat and poultry 0.561 0.561 Sugar and syrup Sugar and syrup 0.676 0.676 Grains, fruits, and starchy Grains, fruits, and starchy -0.633 -0.633 and nonstarchy vegetables and nonstarchy vegetables Food Source Food Source Correlation Coefficient Correlation Coefficient *1973 data, all subjects. From Stamler J: Population studies. In Levy R: Nutrition, Lipids, and CHD. New York, Raven, 1979. All coefficients are significant at the P <0.05 level.
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Men participating in the Ni-Hon- San study* Age (years) Age (years) 57 57 54 54 52 52 Weight (kg) Weight (kg) 55 55 63 63 66 66 Serum cholesterol (mg/dL) Serum cholesterol (mg/dL) 181 181 218 218 228 228 Dietary fat (% of calories) Dietary fat (% of calories) 15 15 33 33 38 38 Dietary protein (%) Dietary protein (%) 14 14 17 17 16 16 Dietary carbohydrate (%) Dietary carbohydrate (%) 63 63 46 46 44 44 Alcohol (%) Alcohol (%) 9 9 4 4 3 3 5-yr CHD mortality rate 5-yr CHD mortality rate 1.3 1.3 2.2 2.2 3.7 3.7 (per 1,000) (per 1,000) Residence Residence Japan Japan Hawaii Hawaii California California *Data from Kato et al. Am J Epidemiol 1973;97:372. CHD, coronary heart disease.
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Populations on diets high in total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sugar have high age-adjusted CHD death rates as well as more obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, and diabetes The converse is also true What is the evidence for dietary intervention studies? *Results from Seven Countries, 18 countries, 20 countries, 40 countries,
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This note was uploaded on 12/21/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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Nutrition and CVD May 2010 - Dietary Intervention and...

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