Radiological Investigations of Endocrinal Glands-1

Radiological Investigations of Endocrinal Glands-1 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Radiological Investigations of Endocrinal Glands: Dr. Shekhawat P.S. Radiologist. New Al Jedaani Hospital. Jedaah Endocrine Glands Pituitary Thyroid Pancreas Adrenal Testes & ovaries Interrelationship between the pituitary, the hypothalamus and the target organs. Pituitary Gland Anatomy: Pituitary gland lies in the pituitary fossa ( sella turcica). The gland is composed of two principal lobes, the anterior ( Adenohypophysis) and the posterior ( Neurohypopysis) with an intermediate lobe which is vestigial in man and pituitary stalk. Anatomy Pituitary Functions Anterior lobe comprising 80% of gland voulme Acidophil ( alfa cells ) growth hormone = Somatotropin (STH) and Prolactin = lactogenic hormone (LTH) Basophil (beta cells) – Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone ( TSH ),follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), interstitial stimulating hormone (ICsh) luteinizing hormone (LH), melanocyte-stimulating hormone. ( MSH). Chromophobe cells= 50% of epithelial cell population of unknown significance. Pituitary Functions Posterior lobe . Vasopressin Antidiuretric hormone ( ADH). Oxytocin. Pars Intermedia: Elaborating tropic hormones = releasing factors+ Prolactin inhibiting factors Pathology of Pituitary Glands Pituitary adenomas are classified as Endocrine active 80%. Prolactinoma ( 35%) Somatotrophic ( acromegaly & gigantism) 25%. Corticotrophic ( Cushing & Nelson syndrome) 5%. Misc.& Mixed ( STH-PRL,ACTH-PRL,PRL-STH, thyrotrophic,gonadotrophic) 15%. Endocrine inactive 20%. Pituitary Adenomas Microademoma : are excessively secreting prolactin ( amenorrhea and galactorrhea) and less than one cm in size). ACTH ( Cushing’s disease) GH ( gigantism or acromegaly hyperpituiarism). Macroadenoma: are large ( more than 10mm in size) usually present with pituitary insufficiency. Suprasellar Lesions Craniopharyngioma. Meningioma. Aneurysm. Metastasis . Radiological Investigations. Plain x-ray of skull C.T scan. MRI. Angiography. Sella Turcica ( lateral view) Anatomy and measurements of sella turcica : Pituitary gland lies in the pituitary fossa ( sella tursica). Sella turcica ( Pituitary fossa) is a sadle shaped osseous structure with the following land marks: Anteriorly the tuberculum sella. Inferiorly the lamina dura. Posteriorly the dorsum sella.....
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Radiological Investigations of Endocrinal Glands-1 -...

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