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robert herrington - VERTEBRATE LIMB DEVELOPMENT...

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VERTEBRATE LIMB DEVELOPMENT Differential Response of Shh Expression Between Chick Forelimb and Hindlimb Buds By FGF-4 (Wada and Nohno, Dev. Dyn., 221(4): 402-411) Robert Herrington
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Why Study Limb Development? Fundamental Understanding of the process Clinical relevance Some statistics: o Frequency of abnormality depends on severity o Duplication of digits is fairly common at ~1 in 300 births o Major failures of formation is less common, at ~ 1 in 100,000 births (Indiana Hand Center)
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What are these abnormalities? Polydactyly – the duplication of a digit
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How do these abnormalities arise? THROUGH IMPROPER DEVELOPMENT!!! The goal of limb development research is to understand how cartilage, muscle and tendons are formed in the right place and how they make the right connections with each other to form a normal functional limb
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Limb Development is A Part of Organogenesis The process of organogenesis involves using the basic body plan (organized embryo) to develop specific organs (limbs, heart, eyes) in specific regions that leads to the fully functional organism, capable of independent survival Involves: pattern formation, specification of positional information, induction, morphogenesis, and cellular differentiation
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How are these processes involved? Pattern formation directs cell identity and leads to ordered spatial pattern of cell activity Positional information directs where organs will form Induction direction of specific cell fate Morphogenesis changing the form of cells Differentiation acquire functional and structural identity distinct from their surrounding cells
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Model System – Development of the Chick Limb I Chick limbs begin to develop on the 3 rd day after laying The limb develop from limb buds on the body wall of the embryo
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Development of the Chick Limb II
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