12 6.27.31 PM - PHYSIOLOGY AND SYSTEMATICS N e w g e n e s...

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PHYSIOLOGY AND SYSTEMATICS New genes are not produced but it is the way they are organized and the different developmental pathways they become involved in that produces the effect we see in an individual group. “Interest in the links between development and evolution have been heightened recently by the discovery that developmentally interesting genes identified in one organism often have homologs (based on sequence similarity) in a range of distantly related creatures.” pg. 581 Patel
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John Kennedy (famous insect behaviorist), in a chapter (see below) devoted to Sir V. B. Wigglesworth on his retirement) noted that behavior is the expression of an organism’s physiology J.S. Kennedy. 1967. Behaviour as physiology, pp. 249-266. In: Insects and Physiology. Eds. J.W.L. Beament and J.E. Treherne. Oliver & Boyd, London. The same should hold true for systematics. Morphological traits, biochemical traits, etc., are the results of the organism’s physiology as orchestrated by the genetic system of the organism. Thus, Systematics as physiology is an appropriate topic for a course in Insect Structure and Function. Think of it! Don’t most systematists use structure as a key to unlock the identity of a new species and to place it in its phylogenetic position. SYSTEMATICS AS PHYSIOLOGY
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INTEGUMENTRY SYSTEM 1. Identification using cuticular hydrocarbons or lipids Neal, J.W., et al. 1994. Cuticular lipids of greenhouse whitefly and sweetpotato whitefly Type A and B (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) pupal exuviae on the same host. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 87:609-618. F. Raboudi, M. Mezghani, H. Makni, M. Marrakchi, J. D. Rouault, M. Makni. 2005. Aphid species identification using cuticular hydrocarbons and cytochrome b gene sequences. Journal of Applied Entomology 129 (2), 75–80. 2. Cuticular plaques and dipterous larval evolution Stoffolano, J.G., Jr., N.E. Woodley and A. Borkent, and L.R.S Yin. 1988. Ultrastructural studies of the abdominal plaques of some Diptera. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 81: 503-510. Yeates, D.K. and B. M. Wiegmann. 1999. Congruence and controversy: Toward a higher-level phylogeny of Diptera. Ann. Rev. Ent. 44: 397-428.
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Tabanus nigrovittatus (above) feeding on blood or artificial diet containing ATP while below a female is taking a human blood meal. It was reported in the literature that the pits or plaques on the abdomen of the adult were sensory. Were they? Reported sensory pits
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Different SEM magnifications of the supposed ‘sensory pits’ in female Tabanus nigrovittatus . Note in fig. 5 the pitting nature of the cuticle. Stoffolano, J.G., Jr., N.E. Woodley and A. Borkent, and L.R.S Yin. 1988. Ultrastructural studies of the abdominal plaques of some Diptera. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 81: 503-510.
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SEM of ventral view of male Tabanus nigrovittatus (figs. 6, 7) showing the pits. If they were involved in sensing temperature when the female lands on the host, why would they be present in the males?
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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12 6.27.31 PM - PHYSIOLOGY AND SYSTEMATICS N e w g e n e s...

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