APGAR - APGAR EXPANSION A for Appearance P for Pulse Rate G...

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APGAR EXPANSION A for Appearance P for Pulse Rate G for Grimace A for Activity R for Respiration
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From Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia , July-August, 1953, page 260. Presented before the Twenty-Seventh Annual Congress of Anesthetists, Joint Meeting of the International Anesthesia Research Society and the International College of Anesthetists, Virginia Beach, Virginia, September 22-25, 1952.
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23/25 th Sept 1952
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A Proposal for a New Method of Evaluation of the Newborn Infant Virginia Apgar, MD, New York, NY Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians & Surgeons and the Anesthesia Service, The Presbyterian Hospital
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The first page of the original Apgar paper http://www.neonatology.org/classics/apgar2.html
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“Grading" of newborn infants which can be used as a basis for discussion and comparison of the results of obstetric practices, types of maternal pain relief and the effects of resuscitation
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"score" "breathing time" defined as the time from delivery of the head to the first respiration . "crying time" the time until the establishment of a satisfactory cry.
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Cry A satisfactory cry is sometimes not established even when the infant leaves the delivery room, and in some patients with cerebral injury, the baby dies without ever having uttered a satisfactory cry. Mild, moderate and severe depression of the infant leaves a fair margin for individual interpretation.
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The time for judging the five objective signs were sixty seconds after the complete birth of the baby
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1) Heart Rate A heart rate of 100-140 was considered good and given a score of two, a rate of under 100 received a score of one, and if no heart beat could be seen, felt or heard the score was zero.
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