Unformatted text preview: Blood Donors, Blood Collection & Storage
Dr. Tariq M. Roshan
Department of Hematology
Dated 11/7/2004 List of criteria used for the selection of blood donors
List of instruments/materials used for the collection of donors blood
Definition Steps in preparation of a donor prior to venisection and collection of blood
Pre and post donation care
Screening tests done
Common anticoagulants Plasmapheresis
Heterologous donation Advantages and disadvantages Changes that occur on blood during storage
Ethical issues related to donation
Concept of mobile blood bank and public relation in donor recruitment program Donation must be accomplished in such a way that the safety of both the donor and the potential recipient is assured DEFINITIONS
DEFINITIONS Autologous derived from organisms of the self; same individual; "autologous blood donation" Heterologous derived from organisms of a different but related species; "a heterologous blood donation” DEFINITIONS
DEFINITIONS Apheresis Greek work meaning “take out”
The process of removal of whole blood from a donor or patient, separating out specific portions, and returning the other portions to the donor/patient – Can be done for Harvesting specific components for transfusion (plasma, platelet, red cells) Removal of specific pathologic substances Cytapheresis To harvest specific cellular components such as platelets, granulocytes or red cells. Plasmapheresis To harvest plasma only and return back the cellular components to the donor/patient TYPE OF BLOOD DONATION WHOLE BLOOD DONATION APHERESIS DONATION AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD DONATION BLOOD DONATION SITES WALK IN DONATIONS Blood donors coming to the blood bank for donations Usually regular blood donors MOBILE BLOOD DONATIONS Major part of blood donations Blood donations out side the campus for Targeted population group
Untargeted population group STANDARD OF PRACTICE FOR DONOR SCREENING FIRST TIME DONORS Longer screening process to fully explain all parts of the donation process Expected to have more quires REGULAR DONORS Shorter screening process AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD DONORS Planning for donation according to the time and need of blood DONOR SECLECTION Two crucial factors for safe blood products Accurate donor screening or selection
Accurate laboratory testing on each unit collected BROAD PRINCIPLES OF DONOR SELECTION Giving blood does not harm the donor
Donated blood loss is restored rapidly and completely
The blood must not harm the recipient WHY DOES ONE DONATE? Volunteer donation
Donation to replace products used
Donation to cover family and friends
Donation for payment The last category, paid donors are not used in today’s blood banks – Motivation such as time off, Tshirts, coffee cups and pens are not considered direct payment for donation. PURPOSE OF DONOR SCREENING FIRST Healthy enough to donate SECOND Recipient is protected Laboratory staff is protected OUTCOMES OF DONOR SCREENING
Acceptance Temporary deferral Permanent deferral DONOR SCREENING Registration of the donor
Physical examination Upon successful completion of these the donor proceeds to phlebotomy Donors must be assured of a private and confidential interview process for the medical history and the physical examination. DONOR ARRIVES Temporary
deferral Registration & demographic data
Deferral if low
Hb Temporary or Permanent
deferral Un Successful
Future plan. Hb Physical
examination Phlebotomy OK Permanent
deferral Medical history &
counseling OK to donate Successful Post donation
refreshments DEMOGRAPHIC DATA Donors full name as in identification card and ID card number
Permanent address with telephone number
Age 1855 years Date of birth DEMOGRAPHIC DATA Donors occupation Date of last donation if any Whole blood should be 3 months
Apheresis 2 weeks
Autologous depends on the requirement Should be >45 Kgs Weight MEDICAL HISTORY
MEDICAL HISTORY Medical history should be taken by trained health care professional
It must be assured that the confidentiality of the donor should be maintained
Direct questions or leading questions are allowed in the interview MEDICAL HISTORY QUESTIONS Have you every given blood under a different name?
In the past 8 weeks, have you given blood, plasma, or platelets?
Have you ever been refused as a blood donor or told not to donate blood?
Have you ever had cancer, a blood disease or bleeding disorder?
Have you ever had yellow jaundice, liver disease or positive test for hepatitis?
Have you ever given growth hormone? MEDICAL HISTORY QUESTIONS Are you feeling well and healthy today?
In the past 3 years, have you had malaria?
In the past 1 year, have you been under a doctor’s care or had a major surgery?
In the past 1 year, have you received blood or had an organ or tissue transplant?
In the past 1 year, have you had tattoo, skin piercing or accidental needle stick?
In the past 1 year, have you had close contact with a person with yellow jaundice or hepatitis? MEDICAL HISTORY QUESTIONS In the past 1 year, have you has a positive test for syphilis?
In the past 1 year, have you given money or drugs to anyone to have sex with you?
For female donors: in the past 6 weeks, have you been pregnant or are you pregnant now?
In the past 4 weeks, have you had any shot of vaccinations?
In the past 3 days, have you taken aspirin or anything that has aspirin in it? MEDICAL HISTORY QUESTIONS Male donors: have you had sex with another male even once?
Female donors: have you had sex with a male who has had sex, even on time with another man?
Have you ever taken clotting factor for bleeding disorder?
Have you had a positive test for AIDS?
Are you giving blood to be tested for AIDS?
Have you had any symptoms of AIDS or weight loss? Have you read and under stood all the Have you read and under stood all the donor information presented to you, and have all your questions been answered? UNDERTAKING……………………………
DATED________________________ PHYSICAL EXAMINATION General appearance of donor
Determination of hemoglobin
Males Females Pulse Hb: >12.5 g/dl Hb: >12.0 g/dl 50100 beats/min Blood pressure Maximum 140/90 mm Hg PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Temperature Maximum 37.5 0C Donor weight Minimum 45 Kgs Amount of blood to be drawn (Donor wt. in Kg÷50) X 450 Venipuncture site Inspection for scar marks PHELEBOTOMY
PHELEBOTOMY Preparation for the venipuncture Reidentification of the donor to avoid errors
Selection of the arm and vein
Skin preparation, scrubbing of the area
Local anesthesia Venipuncture
Mixing of the blood bad during the procedure
Samples for the screening tests
End of procedure POST DONATION POST DONATION INSTRUCTIONS After donation, please rest in the donation chair for 10 minutes before getting up
Eat and drink something before leaving
Inform a staff member immediately if you have any unexpected reaction Lightheadedness
Flushing Drink more fluids than usual during the next 4 hours POST DONATION POST DONATION INSTRUCTIONS If there is bleeding from the site where the needle was placed raise your arm and apply pressure
If you feel dizzy or faint, lie down or sit down, placing your head lower than your knees
If either bleeding or faintness persists, return to blood bank
If you become ill in the next 3 to 4 days, contact the department with information on our illness
THANK YOU FOR YOUR DONATION.
WE HOPE TO SEE YOU AGAIN SOON! POST DONATION CARE OF BLOOD POST DONATION CARE OF BLOOD DONOR Donor care is provided my trained nurse under the supervision of doctor
Occasionally donors experience adverse reaction
Record of donor adverse reaction should be kept for future decisions DONOR REACTIONS
DONOR REACTIONS Vasovagal reaction Sudden fainting due to hypotension Neurophysiological response Apprehension, first time donor, female
Sight of blood Prevention Donor screening
Psychological support through positive donorstaff relationship and reassurance
Physical comfort like temperature and surrounding environment DONOR REACTIONS
DONOR REACTIONS Hyperventilation Increased inspiration and expiration either rate or depth Results in excessive loss of CO2
Severe cases can result into hypocalcaemia tetany or syncope Usually associated with anxiety Prevention and treatment Reassure the donor
Ask the donor to cough to interrupt the pattern of breathing
Instruct the donor to rebreathe expelled air into a small paper bag DONOR REACTIONS
DONOR REACTIONS Hematomas A mass of blood (usually clotted) that is confined to a local region and usually results from the rupture of a blood vessel Prevention is by effective collection technique Resolves spontaneously or by apply ice pack AUTOLOGOUS DONATION
AUTOLOGOUS DONATION A Donation by the intended recipient of his or her own blood or component for a possible subsequent transfusion
Preoperative or predeposit Perioperative hemodilution Intraoperative salvage Postoperative salvage CRITERIA FO PREDEPOSIT
CRITERIA FO PREDEPOSIT Donation can be made at weekly interval (15units)
Hb HCT >11.0 g/dl
>33% Last donation should be 72 hours before surgery
Cross match is required before each transfusion
Blood not required during or after the patient surgery normally is discarded
Screening test are performed as per normal donation
Label should clearly state “For Autologous Use Only” CRITERIA FOR APERESIS CRITERIA FOR APERESIS PLATELET DONATION Preferably regular donor
Weight >55 Kgs Good venous access
Prior investigations required FBC
Serum lipid profile End of part 1.
End of part 1. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.
- Fall '11