Cerebral Palsy - Concepts and Current Views

Cerebral Palsy - Concepts and Current Views - Cerebral...

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Unformatted text preview: Cerebral Palsy concepts and current views Mamoun Kremli Associate Professor Consultant Pediatric Orthopedics College of Medicine & King Khalid University Hospital cerebral palsy Definition None progressive disease of the CNS secondary to a perinatal insult, resulting in varying degrees of motor milestone delay and dysfunction Incidence 2 – 5 % of live births 2 per thousand children at school age Cerebral palsy Classification • Pattern of involvement : Diplegia Hemiplegia Triplegia Quadriplegia (total body) • Type of motor dysfunction : Spastic / Ataxic / Mixed / Athetoid / hypotonic 65% 5% 12% 10% 1% Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia • The most common type • Speech / intellect: normal – slightly impaired • UL : gross motor OK minor incoordination of fine motor skills • LL : spastic : hip: flexion, adduction, int. rotation knee: flexor / extensor spasticity /or equal ankle: equinus foot: pes valgus • Most walk independently by 4 years Cerebral palsy Spastic Hemiplegia • 30 % of all CP • One side affection upper > lower extremity • 50 % mentally retarded • 33 % seizures Cerebral palsy Spastic Quadriplegia • • • • All four limbs involved – and trunk Often mentally retarded With seizures Most ( 80 % ) non walkers Cerebral palsy Clinical Assessment Goals of Physical Examination • Determine grades of muscle strength and selective control. • Evaluate muscle tone and determine type. • Evaluate degree of deformity / contracture at each joint. • Assess linear, angular and torsional deformities of spine, long bones, hands and feet. • Appraise balance, equilibrium and standing / walking posture. Cerebral palsy Clinical Assessment Hip Flexors Thomas test • easy & simple, well known •problem : depends on how much is the other hip flexed Cerebral palsy Clinical Assessment Hip Flexors With fixed knee flexion, Thomas test should be performed with knee outside at table edge to prevent false positive results Cerebral palsy Clinical Assessment Hip Flexors Staheli Test • More accurate • Prone position • Pelvis over table edge Cerebral palsy Clinical Assessment Hip Flexors Ely / Rectus Femoris Test • Well known • Significance ? Cerebral palsy Clinical Assessment Hip Adductors Hip abduction / knees extended Hip abduction / knees flexed The Gracilis Cerebral palsy Clinical Assessment Knee Flexion The Hamstring Test • Hip flexed 90 • Popliteal angle Cerebral palsy Clinical Assessment Ankle Silfverskiold – 1923 Gastroc. Vs T. Achilles ( Soleus ) Cerebral palsy Clinical Assessment Rotational Profile • Foot propagation angle • Femoral rotation int. / extr. Rotation • Tibial rotation Foot – Thigh Angle Cerebral palsy Types of Treatment • • • • Physical therapy Orthoses Control of spasticity Orthopedic surgery Cerebral palsy Spasticity • Present in most patient with CP • When reduced patients may : - perform integrated muscle movement - develop muscle strength - function at a higher level • Approaches : Selective dorsal rhizotomy Intrathecal baclofen Botulinum-A toxin Cerebral palsy Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy • • • • • 30 – 50 % of abnormal dorsal rootlets L2 - S1 Followed by intensive physiotherapy Results encouraging May cause hyperlordosis / hip subluxation Best for : spastic diplegia, 4-8 yrs, no previous surgery, no contractures, no extra pyramidal signs • ? Not enough alone • Orthopedic procedures obtain similar results Cerebral palsy Baclofen • Oral : mixed reports/ side effects/ not selective • GABA agonist – inhibits release of excitatory neurotransmitter at level of spinal cord • Continuous intrathecal – implantable pump • Good results in releasing spasticity, and improving function • Complications of pump and catheter • Needs specialized centers Cerebral palsy Botulinum-A toxin • Acts at myo-neural junctions inhibits exocytosis of Acetylcholine • Inject selected muscles at multiple sites • Spasticity reduction may last up to 6 months • Reversible , painless , minimal side effects • Most patients still require lengthening for permanent correction • Role : - Facilitates physiotherapy and mobilization - Delays surgical management - Trial to determine effects of specific proposed surgical treatment Cerebral palsy Prerequisites for effective surgery • Type : spastic • Extent : hemiplegics / diplegics : good results quadriplegics : minimal improvement • Age : 3- 12 years • IQ : good • Good upper limb function : for walking • Underlying muscle power : not weak • Walker / non-walker : surgery hardly changes state but improves gait Cerebral palsy Timing For Orthop Surgery • For structural changes : Early e.g. Hip subluxation , usually <5 years • To improve gait : defer until walking ( independently / with aids ) until gait pattern develops walking : 18 – 21 months in hemiplegia 3 – 4 years in spastic diplegia • Optimum time of lower extremity surgery 5 – 7 years: can analyze and observe gait pattern Cerebral palsy Timing For Orthop Surgery • Surgery is NOT “The Last Resort” ( not after all other methods failed !) • Surgery should not be unduly staged one by one ( with each birthday ) Cerebral palsy The Hip • Dynamic / structural deformities • Hip subluxation : not common in walking patients with diaplegia • Tight adductors – scissoring • Tight flexors – with pelvic inclination compensatory knee / ankle/ trunk deformities Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia - Hip Adductor Spasm • Normally base of gate : 5 –10 cm ( heel to heel ) • Indications for surgery : scissoring hip abduction in supine < 10 Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia - Hip Adductor Spasm • Types of adductor “release” : ( open – not closed ) adductor longus tenotomy sliding proximal end & suturing to brevis adductor longus & gracilis myotomy • Leave adductor brevis ( the major hip stabilizer ) • No anterior branch obturator neurectomy (n. to adductor brevis) • Release brevis if can not abduct 45 UGA Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia - Hip Flexion Deformity Indication for surgery • Hip flexion deformity never decrease by physiotherapy – orthoses – sleeping prone … • Hip flexion deformity > 20 needs surgery Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia - Hip Flexion Deformity • Iliopsoas is the main and most powerful flexor • Function of Iliopsoas not compensated by other flexors • Without Iliopsoas can not lift foot more than few inches from floor can not climb stairs • Iliopsoas is the main contributor to FFD of hip • Need to lengthen / preserving strength Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia - Hip Flexion Deformity What not to do ! • Yount’s fasciotomy of Tensor F. Lata – not enough • Souter’s muscle sliding of Sartorius, Rectus Femoris, and Tensor Fascia Lata – 66% recurrence • Proximal Rectus Femoris tenotomy - if it feels tight intraop. it is normally tight - if hamstrings spastic : overpowers the weekend Quad.in 6m – 1 year • Myotomy of ant. Fibers of Gluteus Medius very important pelvic stabilizer in stance phase Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia - Hip Flexion Deformity Iliopsoas tenotomy / lengthening / recession • Tenotomy : not in ambulatory patients in non-ambulatory OK • Recession : good for subluxated hip might weaken it too much • Lengthening (z plasty) : best / easy satisfactory in ambulating patients no risk of too much weakening of flexion power Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia – The Knee • Crouched gait : - tight hamstrings : hamstring release - could be secondary to weak triceps surae - associated hip flexion increases after hamstring release • Type of surgery : - tenotomy: too risky, causes knee extension - transfer : results not as good as thought - lengthening : best ( medial first , then lateral) Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia – The Knee Tight Hamstrings • • • • Surgery when popliteal angle 45 and above Start medially, then laterally if needed Lengthening better than release Add distal rectus femoris release if concomitant cospasticity • Add psoas lengthening if preexisting hip contracture Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia – The Knee • Lengthening hamstrings : reduces hip extension power increases hip flexion • Add hip flexor ( Psoas ) lengthening • Hamstring transfer to femur instead of release Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia – The Foot & Ankle Equinus deformity ( a little equinus is better than calcaneus) • Velocity of muscle growth : early : rapid ( birth – 4 years : doubles ) late : slow ( 4 years – maturity : doubles ) • ETA If done early returns more commonly Recurrence rate : 75 % if done at 2 years 25 % if done at 4 years 14 % if done at 7 years Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia – The Foot & Ankle Toe Walking • Dynamic : Treat by : Bracing Spasticity reduction Surgery ( careful ! ) • Fixed : Treat by : Serial casting Surgery Cerebral palsy Toe Walking Gastrocnemius Release Indications: • isolated gastroc. Contractures • dynamic toe walking problems : • reduces knee flexion power • might not be effective Cerebral palsy Toe Walking ETA Indications : - fixed deformity - tight TA Problems : over lengthening Types : z -plasty sliding : - percutaneous - open Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia – The Foot & Ankle Equino - valgus • • • • More frequently seen Tight TA and Talonavicular subluxation No perfect muscle balancing procedure Treatment : ETA and subtalar arthrodesis Osteotomies Cerebral palsy Spastic Diplegia – The Foot & Ankle Equino - varus • Not very common • Treatment : - split transfer of tib. post. tendon lateral half, posterior to interosseous memb., to peroneus brevis laterally - elongation of tib. Post. and split transfer of tib. ant. Laterally prerequisite : - passively correctable foot - good tib. ant. Cerebral palsy Intoeing • Usually caused by femoral anteversion • If severe : Derotation osteotomy Delay to late childhood if possible • Derotation osteotomy might cause tightening of medial hamstrings ( might need lengthening ) Cerebral palsy Spastic Quadriplegia • Most are non walkers ( 80 % ) • Goals : maintain balanced comfortable sitting • Specific objectives : - straight spine and level pelvis - located, mobile, painless hips (flex 30-90) - mobile knees ( flex 20 –90 ) - plantigrade feet (comfortable on footplate of wheelchair) Cerebral palsy Spastic Quadriplegia Cerebral palsy Spastic Quadriplegia Management • Scoliosis : Fixation • Hips : ( dislocation painful in 50 % ) - hip at risk : (valgus, anteverted, acet. dysplasia) hip adductor and flexor release, ? Obturator neurect. - hip subluxation : same + ? Derotation / varus osteotomy - hip dislocation : if detected early: surgery if detected late : no pain – leave Mamoun Kremli ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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Cerebral Palsy - Concepts and Current Views - Cerebral...

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