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Unformatted text preview: Cervical Cancer
By: Patricia Montoya Cervix Lower part of the uterus Connects the body of the uterus to the vagina (birth canal) Source: American Cancer Society Cervical Cancer Begins in the lining of the cervix Cells change from normal to precancer (dysplasia) and then to cancer Source: American Cancer Society Three Types Squamous cell Carcinomas Adenocarcinomas – Cancer of flat epithelial cell – 80% to 90% Mixed carcinoma Source: American Cancer Society – Cancer arising from glandular epithelium – 10% 20% – Features both types Statistics 10,520 new cases in the U.S. this year 3,900 will die 50% are diagnosed between ages 35 and 55. 20% at the age of 65 or over. Rarely occurs in women younger than 20 Noninvasive is four times more common 74% decrease in deaths between 1955 and 1992 in the U.S. Death rate continuous to decline by 2% a year Source: American Cancer Society Lifetime Probability of Developing Cancer, by Site, Women, US, 1998-2000
Site Risk All sites 1 in 3 Breast 1 in 7 Lung & bronchus 1 in 17 Colon & rectum 1 in 18 Uterine corpus 1 in 38 NonHodgkin lymphoma 1 in 57 Ovary 1 in 59 Pancreas 1 in 83 Melanoma 1 in 82 Urinary bladder 1 in 91 Uterine cervix 1 in 128 Source:DevCan: Probability of Developing or Dying of Cancer Software, Version 5.1 Statistical Research and Applications Branch, NCI, 2003. http://srab.cancer.gov/devcan Signs and Symptoms Vaginal bleeding Menstrual bleeding is longer and heavier than usual Bleeding after menopause or increased vaginal discharge Bleeding following intercourse or pelvic exam Pain during intercourse Source: American Cancer Society Risk Factors Human papillomavirus infection (HPV) – Primary factor – HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 31, HPV 33, HPV 45 – 50% are caused by HPV 16 AND 18 Sexual behavior Smoking HIV infection Chlamydia infection Diet Oral contraceptives Multiple pregnancies Low socioeconomic status Diethylstilbestrol (DES) Family history Source: American Cancer Society Prevention Avoiding the risk factors Having the Pap Test
– – Especially HPV Help for lowincome women (NBCCEDP) – 3 years after first vaginal intercourse or by age 21. – Have test annually Source: American Cancer Society Diagnosis Cervical Cytology (Pap Test) – Cells are removed from the cervix and examined under the microscope. – Can detect epithelial cell abnormalities Atypical squamous cells Squamous intraepithelial lesions Squamous cell carcinoma (likely to be invasive) Source: American Cancer Society Diagnosis Additional testing – Colposcopy – Cervical Biopsies Cervix is viewed through a colposcope and the surface of the cervix can be seen close and clear. Colposcopic biopsy – removal of small section of the abnormal area of the surface. Endocervical curettage – removing some tissue lining from the endocervical canal. Cone biopsy – coneshaped piece of tissue is removed from the cervix Staging FIGO System (International Federation Of Gynecology and Obstetrics) Has five stages – 0 to 4
– – – – – Stage 0 Carcinoma in situ Stage 1 Invaded cervix, but has not spread. Stage 2 Has spread to nearby areas, not leaving pelvic area. Stage 3 Cancer has spread to the lower part of the vagina. Stage 4 Cancer has spread to nearby organs; metastasis. Source: American Cancer Society Survival Rate 5year survival rate is 92% for earliest stage 71% for all stages combined Source: American Cancer Society Surgery Treatment Radiation – Preinvasive cervical cancer Cryosurgery Laser surgery Conization – Invasive cervical cancer Simple hysterectomy – Removal of the body of the uterus and cervix. Radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection – Removal of entire uterus, surrounding tissue, upper part of the vagina, and lymph nodes from the cervix. Chemotherapy What’s new in cervical cancer research and treatment? HPV test HPV vaccine Radical trachelectomy procedure Other clinical trials Source: American Cancer Society ...
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- Fall '11