coma - Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA...

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Unformatted text preview: Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA MANAGEMENT AND EVALUATION OF THE COMATOSE PATIENT Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA OBJECTIVES • Primary Objective: The physician should be able to stabilize, evaluate, and treat the comatose patient in the emergent setting. • The physician should understand this involves an organized, sequential, prioritized approach. Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA The Comatose Patient Primary Objectives • • • Airway Breathing Circulation • Treatment of rapidly progressive, dangerous metabolic causes of coma (hypoglycemia) • Evaluation as to whether there is significant increased ICP or mass lesions. • Treatment of ICP to temporize until surgical intervention is possible. Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA The Comatose Patient Secondary Objectives • The physician should understand and recognize: • • • • Coma Herniation syndromes Signs of supratentorial mass lesions Signs of subtentorial mass lesions • The physician should be able to develop the differential diagnosis of metabolic coma. Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA The Comatose Patient Neurophysiology • Consciousness requires: • An intact pontine reticular activating system • An intact cerebral hemisphere, or at least part of a hemisphere • Coma requires dysfunction of either the: • Pontine reticular activating system, or • Bihemispheric cerebral dysfunction Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA The Comatose Patient Classifications • Supratentorial lesions cause coma by either widespread bilateral disease, increased intracranial pressure, or herniation. • Infratentorial lesions involve the RAS, usually with associated brainstem signs • Metabolic coma causes diffuse hemispheric involvement and depression of RAS, usually without focal findings • Psychogenic Plum and Posner, 1982 Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Supratentorial Mass Lesions • • • • • • Hematoma Neoplasm Abscess Contusion Vascular Accidents Diffuse Axonal Damage Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Supratentorial Mass Lesions Subdural Hematoma Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Supratentorial Mass Lesions Acute epidural hematoma and midline shift Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Severe head trauma with basilar skull fracture, right temporal hematoma, cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, and pneumocephalus Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Supratentorial Mass Lesions Cerebral Abscess Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Supratentorial Mass Lesions Pathophysiology • Altered consciousness is based on • Increased intracranial pressure • Herniation • Diffuse bilateral lesions Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Herniation Syndromes Central herniation Rostral caudal progression of respiratory, motor, and pupillary findings May not have other focal findings Uncal herniation Rostral caudal progression CN III dysfunction and contralateral motor findings Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Herniation syndromes Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Normal Anatomy Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Transtentorial Herniation Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Normal Brain Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Transtentorial herniation and brainstem infarction in a patient with melanoma Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Supratentorial Mass Lesions Differential Characteristics Initiatingsigns usually of focal cerebral dysfunction Signs of dysfunction progress rostral to caudal Neurologic signs at any given time point to one anatomic area ­ diencephalon, midbrain, brainstem Motor signs are often asymmetrical Plum and Posner, 1982 Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Rostral Caudal Progression Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Rostral Caudal Progression Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Rostral Caudal Progression Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Infratentorial Lesions • Cause coma by affecting reticular activating system in pons • Brainstem nuclei and tracts usually involved with resultant focal brainstem findings Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Infratentorial Lesions Causes of Coma • • • • • • Neoplasm Vascular accidents Trauma Cerebellar hemorrhage Demyelinating disease Central pontine myelinolysis (rapid correction of hyponatremia) Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Infratentorial Mass Lesions Differential Characteristics • History of preceding brainstem dysfunction or sudden onset of coma • Localizing brainstem signs precede or accompany onset of coma and always include oculovestibular abnormality • Cranial nerve palsies usually present • “Bizarre” respiratory patterns common, usually present at onset of coma Plum and Posner, 1982 Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Metabolic Coma Etiologies • Respiratory – Hypoxia – Hypercarbia • Electrolyte – – – Hypoglycemia Hyponatremia Hypercalcemia • Hepatic encephalopathy • Severe renal failure • Infectious – Meningitis – Encephalitis • Toxins, drugs Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Metabolic Coma Differentiating Features Confusion and stupor commonly precede motor signs Motor sings are usually symmetrical Pupillary reactions are usually preserved Asterixis, myoclonus, tremor, and seizures are common • Acid­base imbalance with hyper­ or hypoventilation is frequent • • • • Plum and Posner, 1982 Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Approach to the Comatose Patient Priorities ABC’s are paramount! Must prioritize Must ensure oxygen and substrate reach CNS and vital organs • Must address immediately life threatening conditions before addressing CNS • • • Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Approach to the Comatose Patient Initial Treatment Airway Breathing Circulation ABC ­ identify and address life threatening inadequacies • Treat rapidly progressive metabolic disorders ­­ hypoglycemia • Evaluate for intracranial hypertension and imminent herniation and treat • • • • Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Management of the Comatose Patient Airway • Evaluate ­­ is airway patent. Can patient move air without obstruction. Is there trauma or foreign body obstructing airway • Try chin lift to help open airway ­­ protect cervical spine • Place airway if indicated ­ nasal or oral airway, intubation, or surgical airway Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Management of the Comatose Patient Airway • Intubate (protecting neck) “anyone who will let you” – Any of the following are adequate criteria • GCS < 9 • Airway not secure or open • Respiration not adequate • Any significant respiratory failure • Uncertainty regarding direction or rate of mental status changes, particularly if constant observation not available (during CT scans, etc..) Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Management of the Comatose Patient Breathing • Evaluate ­ is patient moving adequate air, is respiratory rate appropriate, is gas exchange adequate, are breath sounds adequate and symmetrical • Must assure oxygenation and ventilation • If intubated don’t forget to ventilate • Identify and immediately treat problems ­ pneumothorax, airway obstruction, etc.. Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Management of the Comatose Patient Circulation • Is patient in shock? • Check pulses, heart rate, blood pressure, perfusion • Remember hypotension is late sign of shock • Start treatment for shock • Do not restrict fluids in comatose patient with inadequate intravascular volume. • Cardiac output and cerebral perfusion are much more important than fluid restriction Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Management of the Comatose Patient Circulation • Use isotonic solutions and blood, as indicated. • Do not use hypotonic solutions to treat shock, particularly patients with coma or possible cerebral edema • Identify life threatening hemorrhage and control it. Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Management of the Comatose Patient Disability ­ Neurologic • Glasgow coma scale – Provides easily reproducible and somewhat predictive basic neurologic exam – This allows rapid assessment and record of baseline neurologic status – Allows physician to track neurologic changes over time and multiple examiners Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Glasgow Coma Scale • Three components. Score derived by adding the score for each component. • Eye opening (4 points) • Verbal response (5points) • Best motor response (6 points) Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Glasgow Coma Scale • Eye opening • • • • 4 ­ spontaneous 3 ­ to speech 2 ­ to pain 1 ­ none • Verbal Response • • • • • 5 ­ oriented 4 ­ confused conversation 3 ­ inappropriate words 2 ­ incomprehensible sounds 1 ­ none • Best Motor Response • • • • • • 6 ­ obeys 5 ­ localizes 4 ­ withdraws 3 ­ abnormal flexion 2 ­ abnormal extension 1 ­ none Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Management and Evaluation of the Comatose Patient Practicalities • During ABC’s and secondary survey: – Have someone start IV and obtain labs • ABG’s • Chem 7, LFT’s, ammonia, coagulation studies • Toxin screens • Dextrostick – As soon as IV in and labs drawn, give • Glucose (D25, 2 ­ 4 cc per kilogram) • Consider thiamin Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Management of the Comatose Patient Secondary Survey • Do a quick general exam of the entire body to identify acute life threatening conditions • In general, major thoracic or abdominal trauma takes precedence after ABC’s • Only very rarely is acute neurosurgical intervention appropriate before other acute life threatening injuries are stabilized (except protection of c spine by immobilization) Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Neurologic Examination Secondary Survey • General motor exam – look for focal deficits, posturing (decerebrate or decorticate) • Reflexes, tone • Cranial nerve and brainstem function – Pupillary response ­ diencephalon, midbrain, brainstem, CN’s II and III – Corneal Reflex ­ CN’s V, VII, brainstem – Oculocephalic Reflex ­ not if neck injury possible. Tests CN’s III, IV, VI, VIII, and brainstem. – Oculovestibular (calorics) can be done if neck questionable. Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Neurologic Exam Oculovestibular Testing • • • • Check for tympanic perforation Instill 120 cc cold water over 2 minutes Conscious patient ­ COWS Coma with intact pathways ­ tonic eye deviation to side of cold Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Management and Evaluation of the Comatose Patient • Does the patient have a rapidly progressive intracranial lesion? • Assume yes, if: – – – – 1. Any evidence of brainstem abnormality 2. Any evidence of rostral caudal progression 3. Any focal deficits 4. Progression of motor exam from withdrawal to posturing Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Does the patient have a rapidly progressive intracranial lesion? • If any factor is present, assume increased intracranial pressure is present and herniation and irreversible damage imminent – – – – Intubate Hyperventilate Mannitol CT scan, neurosurgical consultation Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Does the patient have a rapidly progressive intracranial lesion? • If none of the findings are present, surgical lesion less likely than metabolic cause • Mass lesion still possible, though ­ CT scan • Urgency of intubation less but should consider – Will patient deteriorate, particularly while out of constant observation (CT scanner)? – Can patient protect airway? Pediatric Resident Curriculum for the PICU UTHSCSA Management and Evaluation of the Comatose Patient Additional Points • If scans normal, probably metabolic • Emergent causes of metabolic coma (even after ABC’s) – Hypoglycemia ­ give glucose – Infection ­ LP, consider antibiotics, acyclovir. If diagnostic studies delayed, treat first – Certain toxins ­ antidepressants, salicylates, theophylline, alcohol (methanol and ethylene glycol) – Subclinical status epilepticus ...
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