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diabetes - Diabetes and Nondiabetic Hypoglycemia Diabetes...

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Unformatted text preview: Diabetes and Nondiabetic Hypoglycemia Diabetes Mellitus Definition A group of diseases characterized by high blood glucose concentrations resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both Obesity and Diabetes Prevalence by Age 30 25 20 % Obesity Diabetes 15 10 5 0 18-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70+ Sullivan PW et al. Obesity, inactivity, and the prevalence of diabetes, and diabetes related cardiovascular comorbidities in the U.S., 2000-2002. Diabetes Care 28;1599-1603, 2005. Obesity and Diabetes Prevalence by Race 35 30 25 20 15 Obesity Diabetes 10 5 0 White Black Hispanic Asian Native Pacific American Islander Sullivan PW et al. Obesity, inactivity, and the prevalence of diabetes, and diabetes related cardiovascular comorbidities in the U.S., 2000-2002. Diabetes Care 28;15991603, 2005. Obesity and Diabetes Prevalence by Education 30 25 20 15 Obesity Diabetes 10 5 0 <High School High School Some College College Degree Grad Degree Sullivan PW et al. Obesity, inactivity, and the prevalence of diabetes, and diabetes-related cardiovascular comorbidities in the U.S., 2000-2002. Diabetes Care 28;1599-1603, 2005 .. Obesity and Diabetes by Activity 35 30 25 20 Obese Diabetes 15 10 5 0 Active Inactive Sullivan PW et al. Obesity, inactivity, and the prevalence of diabetes, and diabetes related cardiovascular comorbidities in the U.S., 2000-2002. Diabetes Care 28;15991603, 2005 1990 1990 Obesity Trends 2001 Diabetes Trends 2001 BRFSS, 1990- 2001 A crisis in the making Millions of Americans Diagnosed with Diabetes A Crisis in the Making 20 million American adults have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) 13­14 million Americans have impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 40­50 million Americans have metabolic syndrome In 2002, diabetes­related costs in the US were $132 billion Average annual cost for medical care for people with diabetes is $13,243 vs $2560 for persons without diabetes American Diabetes Association Standards of Care www.diabetes.org accessed 2-13-08 American Diabetes Association Standards of Care www.diabetes.org; accessed 2-13-08 National Guideline Clearinghouse Diabetes and Prediabetes Types Type 1 (formerly IDDM, type I) Type 2 (formerly NIDDM, type II) Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) Prediabetes (impaired glucose homeostasis) Other specific types Diabetes Type 1 Represents about 5­10% of all cases of diabetes Two forms – Immune mediated—beta cells destroyed by autoimmune process – Idiopathic—cause of beta cell function loss unknown Diabetes Care, 30;S1, January 2007 Type 1 Diabetes Diabetes Type 1 Symptoms Hyperglycemia Excessive thirst (polydipsia) Frequent urination (polyuria) Significant weight loss Electrolyte disturbance Ketoacidosis Type 1 Diabetes Causes Immune­mediated – Genetic predisposition – Autoimmune reaction may be triggered by viral infection, toxins – Destroys β­cells in pancreas that produce insulin Idiopathic (cause unknown) – Strongly inherited – African or Asian ancestry Diabetes Care, 30:S1, January 2007 Type 1 Diabetes Pathophysiology At onset, affected persons are usually lean, have abrupt onset of symptoms before age 30 Honeymoon phase: after diagnosis and correction of hyperglycemia and metabolic derangements, need for exogenous insulin may drop dramatically for up to a year 8 to 10 years after onset, β­cell loss is complete Diabetes Type 2 Most common form of diabetes accounting for 90% to 95% of diagnosed cases Combination of insulin resistance and beta cell failure (insulin deficiency) Progressive disease Ketoacidosis rare, usually arises in illness Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 Symptoms Insidious onset Often goes undiagnosed for years Hyperglycemia Excessive thirst (polydipsia) Frequent urination (polyuria) Polyphagia Weight loss Diabetes Type 2 Risk Factors Family history of diabetes Older age Obesity, particularly intra­abdominal obesity Physical inactivity Prior history of gestational diabetes Impaired glucose homeostasis Race or ethnicity Diabetes Type 2 Pathophysiology Results from a combination of insulin resistance and β­cell failure – Insulin resistance: decreased tissue sensitivity or responsiveness to insulin Endogenous insulin levels may be normal, depressed, or elevated, but inadequate to overcome insulin resistance Diabetes Type 2 Pathophysiology Insulin resistance → Compensatory ↑ in insulin secretion → glucose remains normal As insulin production fails, ↑ post­prandial blood glucose Liver production of glucose increases, resulting in ↑ fasting blood glucose Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity further impair insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy Occurs in 7% of all pregnancies (200,000 cases annually) Does not include women who have diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy Usually diagnosed during the 2nd or 3rd trimester of pregnancy when hormonal changes cause insulin resistance May or may not require insulin treatment Diabetes Care 30;Supplement 1, January 2007 Prediabetes (Impaired Glucose Homeostasis) Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) – fasting plasma glucose (FPG) above normal (>100 mg/dL and <126 mg/dL) Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) – plasma glucose elevated after 75 g glucose load (>140 and <200 mg/dL) Diagnosis and classification of Diabetes Mellitus; Diabetes Care 2007;30:S42-46 Metabolic Syndrome Characteristics sInsulin resistance sCompensatory hyperinsulinemia sAbdominal obesity sDyslipidemia (elevated TG, low HDL) sHypertension Risk factor for cardiovascular disease and glucose intolerance Methods of Diagnosis Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) Casual plasma glucose (any time of day) Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)* *not generally recommended for clinical use Revised Diagnostic Criteria FPG mg/dl Normal <100 OGTT 2 hr mg/dl <140 Prediabetes >100 and < 126 >140 and <200 Diabetes >126 >200 Casual PG mg/dl >200 + symptoms Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes--2007. Diabetes Care 30:S4-S41, 2007 Screening for DM All persons >45 years; repeat every 3 years High risk persons: screen at younger age and more frequently – – – – – – – – Overweight (BMI >25) First­degree relative with diabetes High­risk ethnic population Delivered baby >9 lb or diagnosed GDM Hypertensive HDL <35 mg/dl or TG >200 Prediabetes Polycystic ovary syndrome Diabetes—Treatment Goals FPG A1c Peak PPG Blood pressure LDL­C Triglycerides HDL­C 90—130 mg/dl <7% <180 mg/dl <130/80 mmHg <100 mg/dl <150 mg/dl >40 mg/dl* *for women HDL­C goal may be increased by 10 mg/dl American Diabetes Association Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 30:S4-S36, 2007 Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) Subjects: 1400 young adults (13­39 years) with Type 1 diabetes Compared intensive BG control with conventional tx Results: Intensively treated patients had a 50­75% reduction in progression to retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy after 8­9 years Clear link between glycemic control and complications in Type 1 diabetes Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group: The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 339;977, 1993. United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Subjects: 5102 newly­diagnosed Type 2 diabetic patients Compared traditional care (primarily nutrition therapy) with A1C of 7.9% with intensively treated group (A1C of 7%) Intensively treated group microvascular complications ↓ by 25% and macrovascular disease ↓ by 16%. United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Group: Intensive blood glucose control with sulfanylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in Type 2 diabetes. UKPDS 34, Lancet 352:854, 1998a United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Combination therapy (insulin or metformin with sulfonylureas) was needed in both groups to meet glycemic goals with loss of glycemic control over the 10­year trial. Confirmed progressive nature of the disease. As the disease progresses, MNT alone is generally not enough; should not be considered a failure of diet United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Prior to randomization into intensive or conventional treatment, subjects received individualized intensive nutrition therapy for 3 months. Mean A1C decreased by 1.9% (~9% to ~7%) and patients lost an average of 3.5 kg United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Group: UK Prospective Diabetes Study 7: Response of fasting plasma glucose to diet therapy in newly presenting Type 2 diabetic patients. Metabolism 39:905, 1990. Diabetes Management Evaluation of Glycemic Control: SMBG SMBG should be carried out 3+ times daily for those using multiple insulin injections (A) For pts using less frequent insulin injections or oral agents or MNT alone, SMBG is useful in achieving glycemic goals (E) Instruct the pt in SMBG and routinely evaluate the pts ability to use data to adjust therapy (E) American Diabetes Association Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 30:S4-S36, 2007 Evaluation of Glycemic Control: A1C Perform the A1C test at least 2 times a year in pts who are meeting treatment goals and have stable glycemic control (E) Perform the A1C test quarterly in pts whose therapy has changed or who are not meeting glycemic goals (E) Use of point­of­care testing for A1C allows for timely decisions on therapy changes when needed (E) American Diabetes Association Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 30:S4-S36, 2007 Diabetes Self­ Management Education (DSME) People with diabetes should receive DSME according to national standards when their diabetes is diagnosed and as needed thereafter (B) DSME should be provided by health care professionals who are qualified to provide it based on their training and continuing education (E) DSME should address psychosocial issues since emotional well­being is strongly associated with positive diabetes outcomes DSME should be reimbursed by third­party payors. American Diabetes Association Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 30:S4-S36, 2007 Required Elements of Recognized DSME Programs Diabetes disease process Nutrition Physical activity Medications Monitoring / using results Acute complications Chronic complications Goal setting and problem solving Psychosocial adjustment Preconception care, pregnancy, and GDM (if applicable) Physical Activity Improves insulin sensitivity in Type 2 diabetes Reduces hepatic glucose output Reduces cardiovascular risk factors Controls weight Improves mental outlook Physical Activity To improve glycemic control, assist with weight maintenance, and reduce risk of CVD, at least 150 min/week of moderate­ intensity aerobic physical activity (50­70% MHR) and/or at least 90 minutes/week of vigorous aerobic exercise (>70% MHR) is recommended Should be distributed over at least 3 days a week with no more than two consecutive days without physical activity (A) American Diabetes Association Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 30:S4-S36, 2007 Physical Activity In the absence of contraindications, people with type 2 diabetes should be encouraged to perform resistance exercise three times a week, targeting all major muscle groups, progressing to three sets of 8­10 repetitions at a weight that cannot be lifted more than 8­10 times (A) American Diabetes Association Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 30:S4-S36, 2007 Effect of Exercise on Blood Glucose In well­controlled diabetes, lowers blood glucose In poorly­controlled (underinsulinized) diabetes, blood glucose and ketones will increase If BG> 250­300 mg/dl, postpone exercise until control improves Activity in Presence of Specific Long Term Complications of Diabetes Retinopathy: vigorous aerobic or resistance exercise may trigger hemorrhages or retinal detachment Peripheral neuropathy: lack of pain sensation increases risk of injury and skin breakdown; non weight­bearing exercise may be best American Diabetes Association Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 30:S4-S36, 2007 Activity in Diabetes Autonomic neuropathy: may decrease cardiac responsiveness to exercise, ↑ risk of postural hypotension, impaired thermoregulation, etc Persons with diabetes should undergo cardiac evaluation prior to initiation of increased activity program Hypoglycemia and Exercise in Insulin Users Common after exercise Add 15 g CHO for every 30­60 minutes of activity over and above normal routines Ingest CHO after 40­60 minutes of exercise Drinks containing 6% or less of CHO can replace CHO and fluid Adjust fast­acting insulin dose 1­2U for strenuous activity lasting >45 to 60 minutes Adjustment Pre­Meal Rapid­ Acting Insulin for Exercise Level of Exercise Very light % dose reduction 30 min of exercise 25% 60 min of exercise 50% Moderate 50% 75% Vigorous 75% __ Source: American Dietetic Association Guide to Diabetes, 2005, p. 77 Classes of Oral Glucose­ Lowering Medications Insulin secretagogues: sufonylureas and meglitinides Biguanides (metformin) Thiasolidinediones (TZD, e.g. pioglitazone, rosiglitazone) Alpha­glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol) Gliptins (Januvia, Galvus) American Dietetic Association Guide to Diabetes MNT and Education, 2005. p. 86 Insulin Secretagogues Sulfanylureas: Glipizide (Glucotrol), glyburide (Glynase Prestabs) glimepiride (Amaryl) Meglitinides: Repaglinide (Prandin) Nateglinide (Starlix) Promote insulin secretion by the β­cells of the pancreas May cause weight gain and hypoglycemia Not effective in persons with little or no beta­ cell activity Sulfanylureas: Indications More effective in persons who Have had diabetes for <5 years Developed diabetes after age 40 Have a fasting blood glucose level <200 mg/dl Do not have dislipidemia Are not overweight Sulfanylureas: Adverse Effects Weight gain (2­5 kg) secondary to increased insulin secretion and overtreatment of hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia – More common in older adults and those with impaired liver and kidney function – Also may occur with physical activity and inconsistent carbohydrate intake Source: American Dietetic Association Guide to Diabetes, 2005, p. 83 Meglitinides Repaglinide and nateglinide (Prandin and Starlix) Short acting insulin secretagogues Generally taken with meals to blunt post­prandial glucose Allows more flexible meal timing Take 15 minutes before meals Omit if meal is skipped or <240 kcals Meglitinides: Adverse Effects Hypoglycemia Weight gain Generally less pronounced than with sulfanylureas Can be used in patients with renal disease Avoid in malnourished, elderly, persons with liver disease American Dietetic Association Guide to Diabetes, 2005, p. 84-85 Biguanides Metformin (Glucophage) Decrease hepatic glucose production by suppressing gluconeogenesis Enhances insulin sensitivity in muscles Metformin also available in combination with other medications – Metformin glyburide (Glucovance) – Metformin/glipizide (Metaglip) – Metformin/rosiglitazone (Avandamet) Biguanides Does not stimulate insulin secretion May lead to modest weight loss (4­6 lb) during first 6 months of treatment Little risk of hypoglycemia in monotherapy Reduces triglycerides and LDL­ cholesterol levels American Dietetic Association Guide to Diabetes MNT and Education. 2005. p. 86 Biguanides: Indications Persons with type 2 diabetes who are overweight, have elevated cholesterol levels, and elevated fasting blood glucose levels Biguanides Improves ovulatory function in women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOS) Reduces risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) in women with PCOS Reduces risk of diabetes in persons with impaired glucose tolerance American Dietetic Association Guide to Diabetes MNT and Education, 2005, p. 86 Thiazolidinediones (TZD) Pioglitazone (Actos), Rosiglitazone (Avandia) Improves peripheral insulin sensitivity Most useful in overweight persons with insulin resistance HDL­C increases, TG often decrease LDL­C may increase, but larger particles Adverse effects: weight gain and edema Patients with advanced CHF or liver disease should not take these Alpha­Glucosidase Inhibitors Acarbose (Precose) and miglitol (Glyset) inhibit intestinal brush­border enzymes Work in the small intestine to inhibit enzymes that digest carbohydrates, delaying CHO absorption Lowers post­prandial glycemia Alpha­Glucosidase Inhibitors Do not cause hypoglycemia with monotherapy Can cause hypoglycemia when used in conjunction with insulin or sulfanylureas Treat hypoglycemia with glucose tablets or milk (medication delays digestion of complex carbs and absorption of sugars) Does not cause weight gain, but can cause flatulence, diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain American Dietetic Association Guide to Diabetes MNT and Education, 2005. p. 86 Insulin All people with Type 1 diabetes need insulin to survive Many people with Type 2 diabetes need insulin to achieve good blood glucose control – Failure to achieve adequate control with oral medications – Acute injury, infection, surgery, pregnancy Four Properties of Insulin Action: speed of onset and duration Concentration: U­100 is the concentration of insulin available in the US (100 units/ml) Purity Source: most insulins are made biosynthetically, treated to yield human insulin Rapid­Acting Insulins Insulin lispro (Humalog) and insulin aspart (Novalog) Used as bolus or mealtime insulins Onset: within 15 minutes Peak: 60­90 minutes Duration: 3­5 hours Short­Acting Insulins Regular insulin (Novolin R, Humulin R) Onset: 15 to 60 minutes Peak: 2­3 hours Duration: 5 to 8 hours Slow onset means it must be taken 30 to 60 minutes before meals American Dietetic Association Guide to Diabetes MNT and Education, 2005. p. 86 Lispro vs Regular Insulin Intermediate­Acting Insulins NPH, Humulin N, Novolin N) Cloudy appearance Onset: 1­2 hours after injection Peak: 6 to 12 hours Duration: 18­24 hours Long­acting insulins Insulin glargine (Lantus) Insulin detemir (Levemir) – – – – Relatively constant peakless over 24 hours Clear in solution Cannot be mixed with other insulins Usually given at bedtime but can be given before any meal; time must be consistent Insulins Glargine vs NPH Pre­Mixed Insulins 70/30: 70% NPH, 30% regular 50/50: 50% NPH, 50% regular Action Times of Human Insulin Regimens Insulin Onset Peak Duration Rapid acting <15 min 0.5–1.5 hr 2–4 hr 0.5–1 hr 2–3 hr 3–6 hr 2–4 hr 6–10 hr 10–16 hr 0.5–1 hr Dual 10–16 hr (Lispro, Aspart) Short acting (Regular) Intermediate (NPH) Mixtures Insulin Mealtime Dose Mealtime or bolus dose: rapid­acting (or short­acting) insulin is given before meals to mimic normal insulin response to a meal Adjusted based on the CHO content of the meal Can establish an insulin­to­ carbohydrate ratio for an individual Insulin Basal or Background Dose Insulin required in post­absorptive state to restrain endogenous glucose output from the liver Limits lipolysis and excess flux of fatty acids to the liver Insulin Dosing: Type 1 Normal weight persons with Type 1 require . 5 to 1 U/kg of body weight About 50% is used to provide for basal or background insulin needs (NPH or glargine) Remainder (lispro or aspart) is divided up among the meals or giving about 1 to 1.5 U insulin per 10 g CHO consumed Higher amount is needed in the morning due to higher levels of counter­regulatory hormones and surge in blood glucose levels (dawn phenomenon) Insulin Dosing: Type 2 Persons with Type 2 may require insulin doses in the range of .5 to 1.2 U/kg Large doses (>1.5 U/kg) may be required at first to overcome insulin resistance American Dietetic Association Guide to Diabetes MNT and Education, 2005. Insulin Pump Therapy Provides basal rapid­acting or short­acting insulin pumped continuously Insulin Dosing A single dose is seldom effective in achieving good blood glucose control in either type of diabetes Insulin may be added at bedtime for persons with Type 2 diabetes to suppress nocturnal glucose production and normalize fasting glucose with oral meds during the day Flexible Insulin Regimens Allow Flexible Meal Plans Involve multiple insulin injections ( 3 or more) or the use of an insulin pump Half of the required insulin dose is given as a basal or background insulin Half is divided and given before meals (bolus or premeal insulin) Allows increased flexibility in choosing when and what to eat Flexible Insulin Regimens Allow Flexible Meal Plans The total CHO content of meals is the major determinant of the mealtime rapid­acting insulin dose Individuals can be taught how to adjust mealtime insulin based on CHO content of the meal However, consistency in meal intake promotes improved glycemic control Fixed Insulin Regimens Pre­mixed insulin or fixed daily dose No mealtime insulin doses Requires day­to­day consistency in timing and amount of carbohydrate eaten ...
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