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GERD - Final - Pathophysiology of Gastro Esophageal Reflux...

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Pathophysiology of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease Commonly known as GERD Vicki Orzel RN/BSN MSN Student Alverno College Spring 2006 Clip Art derived from Microsoft Office [email protected]
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** Click on the arrow at the bottom right to move forward ** ** The arrow at the bottom left will take you back only one slide ** ** Click on the gold button in the center, to take you back to the sequence page, which similar to a table of contents**
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Clip Art derived from Microsoft Office
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BASIC ANATOMY ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS WHAT GERD IS GENETICS INFLAMMATION PHARMOCOGENOMICS STRESS RESPONSE CELL GROWTH AND DEATH SUMMARY
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“Population based survey revealed that 44 % of the population reported monthly heartburn and 19.8 % suffered from heartburn or acid regurgitation at least once a week”. (Zuckschwerdt, W. 2001) Clip Art derived from Microsoft Office
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“ GERD is more common in whites compared with other ethnic groups. However, the prevalence is increasing in Asians”. (Fennerty, 2003) It is also more common in women, however men & people over the age of 60 develop more complications. (Fennerty, 2003) Clip Art derived from Microsoft Office
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BASIC ANATOMY “The upper GI or gastro-intestinal tract consists of the: Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach The small & large intestines form the lower GI tract”. (Porth, 1998 )
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The upper GI Tract is sometimes referred to as the Alimentary canal. (wikipedia) Clip Art derived from Microsoft Office
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Once any food enters the mouth, it moves into the pharynx, which is the back of the throat. (Porth,1998)
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Food is passed from the pharynx into the esophagus by a mechanism called peristalsis. This propelling motion is carried out by the muscles and the central nervous system. (Porth, 1998)
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Peristalsis continues in the esophagus. The food is carried from the esophagus to the stomach where acid production is formed. (Porth,1998) Image with permission from MDA
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“The esophagus is very muscular and collapses when empty. It is 10 inches or 25cm in length” (Porth, 1998)
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The esophagus is sometimes referred to as the “food tube” or the gullet. It extends from the pharynx, which is the back of the throat and goes through the diaphram to the stomach. Clip Art derived from Microsoft Office
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The esophagus is posterior to (behind) the trachea Image with permission from Bristol-Meyers Squibb
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“The esophagus produces bicarbonate and mucus”. (Kahrilas, 2003) “The bicarbonate buffers the acid and mucus forming a protective barrier”. (Kahrilas, 2003) Clip Art derived from Microsoft Office
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This creates an environment in the esophagus of a higher pH than that of the stomach. The pH in the esophagus is normally about 7-8, whereas the pH in the stomach is generally 2-4. (Kahrilas, 2003)
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pH stands for potential of hydrogen. Hydrogen is what causes materials to become acidic. 7 is considered neutral; anything under 7 is considered acidic.
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