Humanitarian Emergencies

Humanitarian Emergencies - Overview of Military Medical...

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Overview of Military Medical Humanitarian Emergencies
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Learning Goals Know the terminology of HA ops Appreciate the variety of organizations involved in disaster relief & their specific capabilities Know the health priorities in HA ops
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Acute situation affecting a large population where either the population or its government is incapable of providing its basic needs
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Many Types of Disasters T e c h n o l o g i c a l C i v i l / E c o n o m i c M a n - M a d e D i s a s t e r s N a t u r a l D i s a s t e r s H u m a n i t a r i a n E m e r g e n c i e s Hurricanes Drought Volcano Tsunami Earthquake Chernobyl Union Carbide Spill War Embargo Genocide
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Number of Humanitarian Disasters Worldwide 1985-95 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Manmade Natural
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Not All “Refugees” are the Same Refugee IDP (Internally Displaced Person) Cross Political Boundaries 15 million (1997) Entitled to UN and int’l rights Stay within own country 20 million (1997) Harder to intervene, assist
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0 5 10 15 20 25 30 '84 '85 '86 '87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 IDPs Refugees ECOSOC, U.S. Mission to U.N. Estimated Number of Displaced Persons Worldwide 1984 - 1997
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Civilian Deaths in Complex Humanitarian Disasters Country Deaths Time Period Sudan > 1 mill. 1983 – Pres Ethiopia 750k – 2 mill 1984 – 1993 Rwanda 500k – 1 mill 1994 – Pres Cambodia > 1 mill 1975 – 1993 Somalia 500 k 1988 – Pres Bosnia- Herzegovina 200 k 1992 - 1996 ECOSOC, UN 1996
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How do you measure disaster severity?
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Crude Mortality Rate (CMR) the number of deaths per 10,000 people per day
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CMRs of Recent Emergencies Date Host Country Home Country Baseline CMR Crisis CMR Jul 90 Ethiopia Sudan 0.6 2.3 Jun 91 Ethiopia Somalia 0.6 4.7 Apr 91 Turkey Iraq 0.2 4.2 Mar 92 Kenya Somalia 0.6 7.4 Jun 94 Burundi Rwanda 0.6 5.0 Jul 94 Zaire Rwanda 0.6 34.0 Infect. Dis Clinics NA Jun 95
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The Vulnerable Suffer the Most (Kurdish Population, Northern Iraq 1991) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0-5 yrs 6 - 14 yrs 15 - 44 yrs 45 + yrs
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Other Vulnerable Populations Unaccompanied Minors Lactating Mothers Pregnant Women Woman Head-of-Households
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Type of Emergency Dictates Response T rauma S helter Water Food S anitation Medical Earth- quake ++++ ++ - - - + Flood - ++++ ++++ +++ +++ +++ Civil Strife +/- ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++ ++++
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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Humanitarian Emergencies - Overview of Military Medical...

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