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Unformatted text preview: Intra Uterine Growth
Retardation Prof.Surendra Nath Panda, M.S.
Dept.of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Berhampur, Orissa, INDIA Intra Uterine Growth Retardation
Retardation Intra Uterine Growth Restriction Small for gestational age (SGA) Foetal growth restriction 'wasted' and 'stunted'
Please also see notes pages for more details in most of the slides Definition
Definition Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)
occurs when the unborn baby is at or below the
10th weight percentile for his or her age (in
weeks). The foetus is affected by a pathologic
restriction in its ability to grow.
restriction Low birth weight (LBW) means a baby
with a birth weight of less than 2500Gms,
which could be due to IUGR or Prematurity
which Please also see notes pages for more details in most of the slides Classification
the baby's head and body
are proportionately small.
may occur when the
foetus experiences a
problem during early
baby's brain is abnormally
large when compared to the
may occur when the foetus
experiences a problem
during later development
during In a normal infant, the brain weighs about three times more than the liver. In
asymmetrical IUGR, the brain can weigh five or six times more than the liver.
Newer Classification: 1. Normal small fetuses- have no structural abnormality,
normal umbilical artery & liquor but wt., is less.They are
not at risk and do not need any special care.
2. Abnormal small fetuses- have chromosomal anomalies
or structural malformations. They are lost cases and
deserve termination as nothing can be done.
3. Growth restricted fetuses- are due to impaired
placental function.Appropriate & timely treatment or
termination can improve prospects. Aetiology
Aetiology The foetal growth is dependent on multiple factors.
The IUGR resulting in SGA babies can result from many
factors known and unknown either acting alone or in
conjunction or in association .
conjunction The aetiologic determinants of IUGR have two
measures of effect: relative risk and etiologic fraction.
etiologic Most of the evidence on aetiologic determinants is
based on observational studies and systematic
overviews or meta-analyses of such studies.
overviews In a majority of cases (40%) the cause is unknown–
probably due to placental insufficiency (idiopathic).
1. General- Racial / Ethnic origin, Small maternal /
Generalpaternal height / weight, Foetal sex.
5. Maternal causes.
Idiopathic- In a majority of cases (40%) the
Idiopathiccause is unknown– probably due to placental
insufficiency. Maternal Risk Factors
Maternal Has had a previous baby who suffered from
IUGR. Extremes of age.
Extremes Is small in size (Ht & Wt). Has poor weight gain and malnutrition during
pregnancy Is socially deprived. Uses substances (like tobacco, narcotics, alcohol)
that can cause abnormal development or birth
defects Has a low total blood volume during early
pregnancy. Maternal Risk Factors
Is pregnant with more than one baby.
Drugs like anticoagulants, anticonvulsants.
Has a cardio-vascular disease-preeclampsia,
Has cardiohypertension, cyanotic heart disease, cardiac
disease Gr III & IV, diabetic vascular lesions.
disease Chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney Chronic infection- UTI, Malaria, TB, genital
infections Has an antibody problem that can make
successful pregnancy difficult (antiphospholipid
antibody syndrome, SLE).
antibody Fetal Risk Factors
Fetal Exposure to an infection-German measles (rubella),
), cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, tuberculosis, syphilis, or
toxoplasmosis, TB, Malaria, Parvo virus B19.
toxoplasmosis, A birth defect (cardiovascular, renal, anencephally,
limb defect, etc).
limb A chromosome defect- trisomy-18 (Edwards’
syndrome),21(Down’s syndrome), 16, 13, xo (turner’s
syndrome. A primary disorder of bone or cartilage. A chronic lack of oxygen during development
(hypoxia). Developed outside of the uterus. Placenta or umbilical cord defects. Placental Factors
Placental Uteroplacental insufficiency resulting from -. Improper / inadequate trophoblastic invasion and
placentation in the first trimester.
placentation Lateral insertion of placenta. Reduced maternal blood flow to the placental bed. Foetoplacetal insufficiency due to-. Vascular anomalies of placenta and cord. Decreased placental functioning mass-.
» Small placenta, abruptio placenta, placenta previa, post
Intrauterine IUGR can be difficult to diagnose. Presence of risk factors. Inadequate growth detected by serial
measurement of Wt., abdominal girth and
fundal Ultrasound to evaluate the foetal growth.
growth. Inadequate foetal growth.
Placental calcification. Diagnosis
Neonatal Low ponderal index (Wt./Fl). Decreased subcutaneous fat. Presence / appearance of –
Hyper viscosity syndrome
Hyper Neonate and Placenta in IUGR
Neonate Normal & IUGR Newborn
babies Normal & IUGR Placentas Prevention Strategies include
Strategies prenatal care modalities,
treatment of anaemia,
fish oil supplementation
prevention and treatment of
» hypertensive disorders,
» foetal compromise
» infection. Prevention Strong evidence of benefit only for the
following interventions: balanced protein/energy supplementation,
strategies to reduce maternal smoking,
antibiotic administration to prevent urinary tract
infections antimalarial prophylaxis. Few statistically significant reductions in the
risk of IUGR have been demonstrated with
other interventions. Surveillance Unless delivery occurs, once treatment begins the
foetus must undergo surveillance. The purpose - to identify further progression of
the disease process that would jeopardize the
foetus to a point that it would be better to be
delivered than to remain in utero. There are four testing modalities which are helpful
-Non-Stress Test, Amniotic Fluid Index,
Doppler of the Umbilical Artery & Biophysical
Profile, each of which addresses different
aspects of surveillance.
aspects Combination of tests are better than an isolated
test. Surveillance Non- Stress Test (NST) This simplest to perform test should b used first in
the surveillance of IUGR foetuses. With the help of
a heart rate monitor, the changes in the foetal heart
rate with foetal movement are to be determined. If
the heart rate increases more than 15 beats for
more than 15 seconds, this is considered to be a
reactive test. If the heart rate does not accelerate,
remains flat, or decreases, then this is an abnormal
test. The problem with this test is that it changes
late in the course of the disease and is not an early
predictor of adverse outcome.
predictor Surveillance Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) The vertical depth of four pockets of amniotic
fluid are measured by USG, to obtain a total
AFI. This method allows for comparison of
changes in amniotic fluid with time. In the
normal foetus the AFI remains relatively
constant. In the foetus with IUGR, it may
decrease slowly, or decrease abruptly with
time. A decrease in AFI may occur before
there are changes in the non-stress test. Surveillance Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) The current
are that if the AFI
decreases below 8
after 35 weeks,
should occur. Surveillance Doppler of the Umbilical Artery When IUGR is
diagnosed, the value of
sequential studies of the
umbilical artery Doppler
waveform is to determine
if the Resistance Index is
increasing or decreasing.
If it is increasing, then
this signifies a
deteriorating condition. Surveillance Biophysical Profile This test combines the NST and the AFI with
foetal movement, breathing, and muscle tone. If each of the tests are normal they are given a score
of 2. If abnormal, a score of 0. A score of 6 or less suggests the foetus is at risk for
adverse outcome. While the biophysical profile is an useful test,
when it becomes abnormal the foetus may have
already suffered some damage Treatment
Treatment IUGR has many causes, therefore, there is
not one treatment that always works. Treatment
Treatment Although there are many causes of IUGR, the treatment
consists of either delivery or remaining in utero and
improving blood flow to the uterus. When blood flow is improved, the delivery of oxygen and
other nutrients to the foetus occurs. If the foetus is lacking
in these substances, their increased availability may result
in improved growth and development. If IUGR is caused by a problem with the placenta and the
baby is otherwise healthy, early diagnosis and treatment
of the problem may reduce the chance of a serious
outcome. There is no treatment that improves foetal growth, but
IUGR babies who are at or near term have the best
outcome if delivered promptly. Treatment
Treatment Maternal bed rest
This is the initial approach for the treatment
of IUGR. The benefit of bed rest is that it
results in increased blood flow to the uterus.
Studies have shown, however, that in most
cases bed rest at home is just as effective as
bed rest in the hospital environment. Treatment
Treatment Maternal bed rest Treatment
Treatment Aspirin Therapy The use of aspirin to treat foetuses with IUGR is
still controversial. If aspirin is used, iit may be advantageous if
given to patients before 20 weeks of gestation.
It is minimal to limited benefit if given at the time
of diagnosis (third trimester). At the present time it is not recommended as a
form of prevention for low risk patients. Treatment
Treatment Other Forms of Treatment Other forms of treatment that have been
studied are nutritional supplementation, zinc
supplementation, fish oil, hormones and
oxygen therapy. Limited studies are available regarding the use
of these modalities in the treatment of IUGR. Treatment
Judge Optimum Time Of Delivery
RISK OF PREMATURITY DIFFICULT EXTRA
EXISTENCE RISK OF IUD
RISK HOSTILE INTRA
ENVIRONMENT Short Term Risks of IUGR
Short Increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. Intra uterine / Intrapartum death. Intrapartuum foetal acidosis characterized by-.
» Late deceleration.
Severe variable deceleration.
Beat to beat variability.
Episodes of bradicardia. Intrapartum foetal acidosis may occur in as many as
40 % of IUGR, leading to a high incidence of LSCS.
40 IUGR infants are at greater risk of dying because of
neonatal complications- asphyxia, acidosis, meconium
aspiration syndrome, infection, hypoglycemia, hypothermia,
sudden infant death syndrome. IUGR infants are likely to be susceptible to infections
because of impaired immunity
because Long term Prognosis
Prognosis Babies who suffer from IUGR are at an increased risk for
death, low blood sugar, low body temperature, and
abnormal development of the nervous system. These risks
increase with the severity of the growth restriction.
increase The growth that occurs after birth cannot be predicted with
certainty based on the size of the baby when it is born.
certainty Infants with asymmetrical IUGR are more likely to catch
up in growth after birth than are infants who suffer from
prolonged symmetrical IUGR.
prolonged If IUGR is related to a disease or a genetic defect, the
future of the infant is related to the severity and the nature
of that disorder.
of Long term Prognosis
Prognosis IUGR infants are more likely to remain small than those of
normal birth weight. They will need the special attention of
primary health, nutrition and social services during infancy
and early childhood.
and Implication of IUGR can be life long affecting: Body size growth, composition and physical
performance Immunocompetence. It appears to predispose to adult adult-onset, degenerative
diseases like maturity onset diabetes and cardiovascular
diseases. Each case is unique. Can not reliably predict an infant's
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.
- Fall '11