Laboratory Data in nutrition assessment

1 1 unitsdl negative negative negative types of

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Unformatted text preview: Negative Negative Not detected Urobilinogen Nitrite Leukocyte esterage 0.1-1 units/dl Negative Negative Negative Types of Assays • • Static assays: measures the actual level of Static the nutrient in the specimen (serum iron, white blood cell ascorbic acid) white Functional Assays: measure a Functional biochemical or physiological activity that depends on the nutrient of interest (serum ferritin, TIBC) ferritin, • (Functional assays are not always (Functional specific to the nutrient) Assessment of Nutrient Pool Assessment of Hydration Status • • • Dehydration: a state of negative fluid balance Dehydration: caused by decreased intake, increased losses, or fluid shifts fluid Overhydration or edema: increase in extracellular Overhydration fluid volume; fluid shifts from extracellular compartment to interstitial tissues compartment • Caused by increase in capillary hydrostatic Caused pressure or permeability pressure • Decrease in colloid osmotic pressure • Physical inactivity Use laboratory and clinical data to evaluate pt Hypovolemia Isotonic fluid loss from the extracellular space Isotonic caused by caused • Fluid loss (bleeding, fistulas, nasogastric Fluid drainage, excessive diuresis, vomiting and diarrhea) diarrhea) • Reduced fluid intake • Third space fluid shift, when fluid moves out Third of the intravascular space but not into intracellular space (abdominal cavity, pleural cavity, pericardial sac) caused by increased permeability of the capillary membrane or decrease on plasma colloid osmotic pressure decrease Symptoms of Hypovolemia • • • • • • • • Orthostatic Hypotension (caused by change in Orthostatic position) position) Central venous and pulmonary pressures ↓ Central Increased heart rate Rapid weight loss Decreased urinary output Patient cool, clammy Decreased cardiac output Ask the medical team!! Treatment of Hypovolemia • • • Replace lost fluids with fluids of similar Replace concentration concentration Restores blood volume and blood pressure Usually isotonic fluid like normal saline or Usually lactated Ringer’s solution given IV lactated Hypervolemia • • • Excess of isotonic fluid (water and sodium) Excess in the extracellular compartment in Osmolality is usually not affected since Osmolality fluid and solutes are gained in equal proportion proportion...
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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