MUTATIONS - Don’t let this happen to you HOOK EM’ HORNS...

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Unformatted text preview: Don’t let this happen to you!! HOOK EM’ HORNS!!! HOOK MUTATIONS MUTATIONS Changes in DNA that affect genetic Changes DNA information information Gene Mutations Gene Point Mutations – changes in Point one or a few nucleotides one Substitution THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT HAT ATE THE RAT Insertion THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT CAT XLW ATE THE RAT Deletion THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT ATE THE RAT Gene Mutations Gene Frameshift Mutations – shifts Frameshift the reading frame of the reading genetic message so that the protein may not be able to perform its function. function. Insertion THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT THE FAT HCA TAT ETH ERA T Deletion H THE FAT CAT ATE THE RAT TEF ATC ATA TET GER AT H Chromosome Mutations Chromosome Changes in number and structure of entire Changes chromosomes Original Chromosome ABC * DEF Original ABC Deletion AC * DEF Duplication ABBC * DEF Inversion AED * CBF Translocation ABC * JKL GHI * DEF Significance of Mutations Significance • Most are neutral • Eye color • Birth marks • Some are harmful • Sickle Cell Anemia • Down Syndrome • Some are beneficial • Sickle Cell Anemia to Malaria • Immunity to HIV What Causes Mutations? What There are two ways in which DNA can There become mutated: become Mutations can be inherited. Mutations Parent to child Mutations can be acquired. Environmental damage Mistakes when DNA is copied Mistakes Chromosome Mutations Chromosome Down Syndrome Chromosome 21 does Chromosome not separate correctly. not They have 47 They chromosomes in stead of 46. of Children with Down Children Syndrome develop slower, may have heart and stomach illnesses and vary greatly in their degree of inteligence. degree Chromosome Mutations Chromosome Cri-du-chat Deletion of material on 5th chromosome chromosome Characterized by the cat-like Characterized cry made by cri-du-chat babies babies Varied levels of metal Varied handicaps handicaps Sex Chromosome Abnormalities Abnormalities Klinefelter’s Klinefelter’s Syndrome Syndrome XXY, XXYY, XXXY Male Sterility Small testicles Breast enlargement Sex Chromosome Abnormalities Abnormalities XYY Syndrome Normal male traits Often tall and thin Associated with antisocial and behavioral Associated problems problems Sex Chromosome Mutations Sex Turner’s Syndrome X Female sex organs don't sex mature at adolescence adolescence sterility sterility short stature short Sex Chromosome Mutations Sex XXX Trisomy X Female Little or no visible differences tall stature learning disabilities llimited fertility imited Some mutations even make it on SNL! on ...
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