Newborn-Resuscitation

Newborn-Resuscitation - NEWBORN NEWBORN RESUSCITATION...

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Unformatted text preview: NEWBORN NEWBORN RESUSCITATION RESUSCITATION Dr. Ashraf Fouda Dr. Domiatte General Hospital birth asphyxia is defined simply as the failure to initiate and sustain breathing at birth The common worry of health professionals and parents is the permanent brain damage that birth asphyxia can cause. Management of baby with birth asphyxia with 1)Basic Resuscitation 2)Advanced Resuscitation BASIC RESUSCITATION RESUSCITATION ABC’s of Resuscitation A B C (A: Airway, B: Breathing, C: Circulation) A - establish open airway Position, suction B - initiate breathing Tactile stimulation Oxygen C - maintain circulation Chest compressions Medications Basic Resuscitation Basic • Initial steps: –Thermal management –Positioning –Suctioning –Tactile stimulation 1.Anticipation. 2.Adequate preparation. 3.Timely recognition. 4.Quick and correct action are critical for the success of resuscitation •Resuscitation must be anticipated at every birth. •Every birth attendant should be prepared and able to resuscitate Good management of pregnancy and labour/delivery complications is the best means of preventing birth asphyxia For resuscitation: For 1. A self-inflating Ambou bag (newborn size) 2. Two infant masks (for normal and small newborn), 3. A suction device (mucus extractor), 4. A radiant heater (if available), warm towels, a blanket and 5. A clock are needed The important steps in The resuscitation are: resuscitation 1.Prevention of heat loss, 2.Opening the airway and 3.Positive pressure ventilation that starts within the first minute of life The surface on which the baby is placed should always be warm as well as flat, firm and clean This consists of : This consists of : drying, positioning the neonate under radiant warmer to minimize heat loss and suctioning of mouth and nose (Tracheal suctioning if meconium present). This should only take approximately 20 seconds Drying provides sufficient stimulation of breathing in mildly depressed newborns and no further stimulation is appropriate The second step (within 20-30 seconds of birth) is assessment of neonatal respiration If the newborn is crying and breathing is normal, no resuscitation is needed The upper airway (the mouth then the nose) should be suctioned to remove fluid if stained with blood or meconium blood If there is no cry, If assess breathing: assess if the chest is rising symmetrically with frequency >30/minute, no immediate action is needed If the newborn is not breathing or gasping: immediately start resuscitation. Occasional gasps are not Occasional considered breathing. considered Open the airway Open •Put the baby on its back •Position the head so that it is slightly extended . The most important aspect of The newborn resuscitation newborn for ensuring adequate ventilation of the lungs, oxygenation of vital organs, and initiation of spontaneous breathing. Ventilation can almost always be initiated using a bag and mask and room air. (it is rarely necessary to intubate) When no equipment is available: mouth to mouth-andnose breathing should be done. Adequacy of ventilation is assessed by observing the chest movements Ventilate •Select the appropriate mask Reposition the newborn •Make sure that the neck is slightly extended. •Place the mask on the newborn's face, so that it covers the chin, mouth and nose . Form a seal between the mask and the infant's face. Squeeze the bag with two fingers only or with the whole hand, depending on the size of the bag • •After effectively ventilating for about 1 minute, stop briefly but do not remove the mask and bag and look for spontaneous breathing •If there is none or it is weak, continue ventilating until spontaneous cry/breathing begins. If the newborn starts crying: stop ventilating but do not leave the newborn. If breathing is slow (frequency of breathing is <30), or if there is severe chest indrawing: continue ventilating and ask for arrangement for referral if possible A newborn will benefit from transfer only if it is properly ventilated and kept warm during transport If there is no gasping or breathing at all after 20 minutes of ventilation: Stop ventilation •Do not separate the mother and the newborn. •Leave the newborn skinto-skin with the mother •Encourage breast-feeding within one hour of birth. •The newborn that needs resuscitation is at higher risk of developing hypoglycaemia. •Observe suckling . Good suckling is a sign of good recovery. •Risk factors are poor predictors of birth asphyxia. •Up to half of newborns who require resuscitation have no identifiable risk factors before birth. •Taking an Apgar score is not a prerequisite for resuscitation. •The need for resuscitation must be recognized before the end of the first minute of life which is when the first Apgar score is taken Sign 0 1 2 Heart rate Absent <100 beats/min >100 beats/min Respirations Absent Weak cry Strong cry Muscle tone Reflex Limp No response Some flexion Grimace Color Blue, pale Body: pink Extremities: blue Active motion Active withdrawal Completely pink ADVANCED RESUSCITATION RESUSCITATION •A small proportion of infants fail to respond to ventilation with the bag and mask. •This happens infrequently but, when it does, additional actions must be taken. •This has been shown to provide more effective ventilation in severely depressed/ill newborns. • It is more convenient for prolonged resuscitation but is also a more complicated procedure that requires good training. Oxygen Oxygen •Additional oxygen is not , necessary for basic resuscitation although it has been considered so by some practitioners. •Oxygen is not available at all places and at all times. • Moreover, new evidence from a controlled trial shows that : most newborns can be successfully resuscitated without additional oxygen. •However, when the newborn's color does not improve despite effective ventilation, oxygen should be given if available. An increased concentration of oxygen is needed for: 1.Meconium aspiration and 2.Immature lung, or 3.When the baby does not become pink despite adequate ventilation. •Chest compressions are not recommended for basic newborn resuscitation. •There is no need to assess the heartbeat before starting ventilation. Compressions should be administered if the heart rate is absent or remains <60 bpm despite adequate assisted ventilation for 30 seconds The (2-thumb, encircling-hands method) of chest compression is preferred, with a depth of compression one third the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest and sufficient to generate a palpable pulse. •In newborns with persistent bradycardia (heart rate <80/min and falling) despite adequate ventilation, •chest compressions may be life-saving by ensuring adequate circulation. •A higher mean arterial pressure was observed using the method in which the hands encircle the chest compared to the two­finger method of compressing the sternum. •Two people are needed for effective chest compression and ventilation. •Before the decision is taken that chest compressions are necessary, the heart rate must be assessed correctly. Drugs are seldom needed to: 1.Stimulate the heart. 2.Increase tissue perfusion 3.Restore acid­base balance. They may be required in newborns who do not respond to adequate ventilation with 100% oxygen and chest compressions. Narcotic antagonists and plasma expanders have limited indications in newborn resuscitation Sodium bicarbonate is not recommended in the immediate postnatal period if there is no documented metabolic acidosis. It should therefore not be given routinely to newborns who are not breathing Epinephrine in a dose of 0.01-0.03 mg/kg (0.1-0.3 mL/kg of 1:10,000 solution) should be administered if the heart rate remains <60 bpm after a minimum of 30 seconds of adequate ventilation and chest compressions. Emergency volume expansion may be accomplished with an isotonic crystalloid solution or Onegative red blood cells; albumincontaining solutions are no longer the fluid of choice for initial volume expansion can serve as an alternative route for medications/volume expansion if umbilical or other direct venous access is not readily available. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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Newborn-Resuscitation - NEWBORN NEWBORN RESUSCITATION...

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