Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma - Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Michael...

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Unformatted text preview: Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Michael Hakim Bio 316 August 5, 2004 Lymphoma History and Overview Statistics What it effects (biology) Classification and Staging Symptoms Causes and Risk Factors Diagnosis and Treatment Lymphoma's Where They Begin Lymphomas are a cancer of the lymphatic system Lymphatic vessels Lymph nodes (underarms, groin, neck, spleen, tonsils and bone marrow) Lymphoma's Where They Begin The Lymphatic system is our bodies main fight against infection Lymphocytes (Bcell and Tcell) Carried through our lymphatic system and help our bodies fight infection Lymphocytes are carried through the lymph vessels as well as the blood stream, so cancer can start in nodes and spread anywhere throughout the body. Lymphatic System American Medical Association Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Statistics 54,370 new cases 19,410 deaths for 2004 In California Alone there are est. 5,550 new cases and a Death rate of 1,730 (California has the highest incidence and Death rate for NonHodgkin's Lymphoma NonHodgkin's Lymphoma is the 6th and 7th most deadly cancers for men and women Recent studies have shown that overweight patients are more likely to die then those patients who are in better shape. Classification Usually classified by how the cells look under a microscope and how quickly they grow and spread Aggressive lymphomas (highgrade lymphomas) Indolent Lymphomas (lowgrade lymphomas) Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Staging Stage is the term used to describe the extent of tumor that has spread through the body( I and II are localized where as III and IV are advanced. Each stage is then divided into categories A, B, and E A: No systemic symptoms B: Systemic Symptoms such as fever, night sweats and weight loss E: Spreading of disease from lymph node to another organ Staging Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Two main types of NonHodgkin's Lymphoma: BCell and TCell Lymphomas BCell lymphomas (80%) TCell lymphomas (15%) B-Cell Lymphoma (80%) BCells help make antibodies, which are proteins that attach to and help destroy antigens Lymphomas are caused when a mutation arises during the Bcell life cycle Various different lymphomas can occur during several different stages of the cycle Follicular lymphoma, which is a type of Bcell lymphoma is caused by a gene translocation which results in an over expressed gene called BCL2, which blocks apoptosis. B-Cell Cancers T-Cell Lymphoma (15%) The Tcells are born from stem cells, similar to that of Bcells, but mature in the thymus. They help the immune system work in a coordinated fashion. These types of lymphomas are categorized by how the cell is affected Anaplastic Large cell Lymphoma, tcell lymphoma caused by a gene translocation in chromosome 5 Symptoms Painful Swelling of lymph nodes located in the neck, underarm and groin. Unexplained Fever Night Sweats Constant Fatigue Unexplained Weight loss Itchy Skin Cancer Sourcebook Causes and Risk Factors The Exact causes are still unknown Higher risk for individuals who: Exposed to chemicals such as pesticides or solvents Infected w/ EpsteinBarr Virus Family history of NHL (although no hereditary pattern has been established) Infected w/ Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Diagnosis XRays CT scans Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Biopsy Lymphangiogram Pictures of the lymphatic system taken w/ x ray after a special dye is injected to illuminate lymph nodes and vessels Treatment NonHodgkin's Lymphoma is usually treated by a team of physicians including hematologists, medical oncologists and a radiation oncologist. In some cases such as for Indolent lymphomas, the Doctor may wait to start treatment until the patient starts showing symptoms, known as "watchful waiting" Treatment Options Chemotherapy Radiation Bone Marrow Transplantation Surgery Bortezomib (Velcade) Immunotherapy Using the bodies own immune system combined with material made in a lab. Survival Rates Survival Rates vary widely by cell type and staging. 1 Year Survival Rate: 77% 5 Year Survival Rate: 56% 10 Year Survival Rate: 42% Any Questions? ...
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