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Unformatted text preview: Minor Ailments
Prepared & Presented By:
Prepared & Presented By: Morsi W. AbdAllah, MD
:Supervising Consultant Walid Jubeh, MD, MRCOG RCS Hospital - Jerusalem
Nov. 2005 Topics to be covered..
Topics to be covered..
1. Nausea and Vomiting.
2. Gastric Reflux (Heartburn).
4. Respiratory Distress.
5. Fatigue and Insomnia.
7. Oedema and varicose veins.
9. Vaginal discharge.
10. Skin Changes.
11. Pelvic Pain, Backache and Symphysis pubis dysfunction.
12. Peripheral paraesthesia and Leg cramps. Nausea and Vomiting (I)
Nausea and Vomiting
• Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is the most •
• common medical condition in pregnancy.
This common symptom occurs in approximately 50% of pregnancies and is most marked at gestational weeks 2–12. It is usually most severe in the morning (Morning Sickness) but can occur at any time and may be precipitated by cooking odors and strong sharp smells. • The pathogenesis of NVP is poorly understood and the etiology is likely to be multifactorial. Physiology of Nausea and Vomiting
Physiology • The vomiting reflex is triggered by stimulation of •
• chemoreceptors in the upper GI tract and mechanoreceptors in the wall of the GI tract which are activated by both contraction and distension of the gut as well as by physical damage. A coordinating center in the central nervous system controls the emetic response. Afferent nerves to the vomiting center arise from abdominal splanchnic and vagal nerves, vestibulo
labyrinthine receptors, the cerebral cortex and the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ).
The efferent branches of cranial nerves V, VII, and IX, as well as the vagus nerve and sympathetic trunk produce the complex coordinated set of muscular contractions, cardiovascular responses and reverse peristalsis that characterizes vomiting. Physiology of Nausea and Vomiting
Physiology • The CTZ contains • chemoreceptors that sample both blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Direct links exist between the emetic center and the CTZ. The CTZ is exposed to emetic stimuli of endogenous origin such as hormones associated with pregnancy and to stimuli of exogenous origin such as drugs . Nausea and Vomiting (II)
Nausea and Vomiting
• The nausea probably results from •
• rapidly rising serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin hCG. During the first trimester, serum hCG levels may be as high as 100,000 mIU/mL.
Emotional tension may play a role in the severity of nausea and vomiting.
Extreme nausea and vomiting may be a sign of multiple gestation or molar pregnancy and SHOULD be distinguished from idiopathic NVP. Treatment of NVP
Treatment of NVP • For uncomplicated nausea consists of light dry foods, small frequent meals, and emotional support.
• Some improvement can be seen with the addition of highdose B6 therapy and the preconceptional use of prenatal vitamins.
• Alternative therapies, such as ginger supplementation, acupuncture, and acupressure, may be beneficial
• Antinauseant drugs ; Promethazine, prochlorperazine and Metoclopramide are used only as a final measure.. Nausea and Vomiting (III)
Nausea and Vomiting
• Protracted vomiting associated with dehydration and ketonuria (hyperemesis gravidarum HG) is defined as persistent vomiting that leads to weight loss greater than 5% of prepregnancy weight, with associated electrolyte imbalance and ketonuria. • It usually presents in T1
• Management of HG: – Admit to hospital.
– NPO and apply TPN if severe.
– Doxylamine succinate 10mg with vit B6. (Gastric Reflux (Heartburn
Gastric Reflux ( • Gastric reflux commonly occurs as a result of delayed gastric emptying, decreased intestinal motility, and decreased lower esophageal sphincter tone. • Information on lifestyle modification includes awareness of posture, maintaining upright positions (especially after meals), sleeping in a propped up position and dietary modifications (e.g. small frequent meals, eat slowly, reduction of highfat foods and caffeine). • Antacid Preparations containing aluminium hydroxide are favoured. Both H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors have been shown to be effective and safe in pregnancy but the manufacturers of both drug groups advise avoidance unless essential. Constipation
• Constipation during Pregnancy is due to : •
• – Reduced motility of large intestine (progesterone effect).
– Increased water reabsorption from large intestine (aldosterone effect).
– Pressure on the pelvic colon by the pregnant uterus.
– Sedentary life during pregnancy .
Advice includes drinking plenty of fluids, high fibre foods and get plenty of exercise. When fibre supplementation is not effective, stimulant laxatives have been shown to be more effective but cause more abdominal pain than bulkforming laxatives.
No evidence currently exists for the effectiveness or safety of osmotic laxatives (e.g. lactulose) or faecal softeners in pregnancy. Flas h Bac k!! Laxative s :
Laxative • Surface Acting: Soften and lubricate, ie mineral oils. Potency Increase
Potency Increase •Bulk forming: Stimulate peristaltism. ie wheat fibre.
•Osmotic Agents: Disturbing iso-osmotic balance inside
the bowel leading to inhibiting the re-absorbtion of
the bowel molecules. ie lactulose.
•Cathartics: Irritate the bowel’s mucosa leading to
low re-absorbtion of fluids in the bowel. İe senna and
•Enemas and Suppositories: ie Saline enema,
Glycerin suppositories. Respiratory distress I
Respiratory distress • The enlarged uterus displaces the diaphragm up to ± 4 cm . This result in : 1.The diaphragmatic mobility is reduced and respiration becomes mainly thoracic .
2.Widen the subcostal angle and increases the transverse diameter of the chest. • Overbreathing (deep respiration) occurs due • to the effect of excess progesterone.
Shortness of breath (the need to breath becomes a conscious one) and dyspnea are common complaint of the pregnant women which may be due to unfamiliarity with low C02 tension in the alveolar capillaries . Respiratory distress II
• The respiratory rate does not increase during pregnancy from its normal rate of 14 15 / minute. • There’s a hormoneinduced 40 percent increase in tidal volume (amount of gas inspired or expired in each respiration ) and an attendant PCO2 decrease (normal value in pregnancy, 30 mm Hg). • Functional residual capacity is decreased because of a rise in the level of the diaphragm. Fatigue and insomnia
Fatigue and insomnia
• Fatigue is very common in early pregnancy and • reaches a peak at the end of the first trimester. Rest, lifestyle adjustment and reassurance are usually all that is required. Fatigue also occurs in late pregnancy, when anaemia should be excluded. Insomnia is also very common and due to a combination of anxiety, hormonal changes and physical discomfort. Mild physical exercise before sleep may help but drug treatment should be avoided. Pruritus
• Local causes are usually due to infections, e.g. scabies,
Generalised itching is common in the third trimester and disappears after delivery. Treatment is with simple emollients but... Cholestasis of pregnancy needs to be excluded by checking liver function tests (raised AST/ALT; alkaline phosphatase is increased in normal pregnancy and so an unreliable marker of cholestasis in pregnancy). Oedema and Varicose Veins
Oedema and Oedema and varicose veins in the lower limbs & vulva are due to: i Venous pressure . ii Relaxation of the smooth muscles in the wall of the veins by progesterone iii Osmotic pressure in blood . iv Capillary permeability (due to progesterone and aldosterone).
v Interstitial pressure (Na retention). Varicose Veins treatments
Varicose Veins treatments
1. Avoid long periods of standing and encourage active exercise.
2. Avoid constricting clothes.
3. Keep the legs elevated while sitting and during sleep.
4.Use of elastic stockings: These should be removed at night and applied with leg elevated before getting out of bed in the morning (empty veins). 1. Stretch panties may be necessary for vulval varicosities. : Haemorrhoids
• They occur due to: •
• – Mechanical pressure on the pelvic veins.
– Laxity of the walls of the veins by progesterone. – Constipation.
Treatment for haemorrhoids includes diet modification, topical soothing preparations and surgery.
However, surgery is rarely considered an appropriate intervention for the pregnant woman since haemorrhoids may resolve after delivery. Vaginal discharge
Vaginal discharge • Women usually produce more vaginal discharge during pregnancy. If the discharge has a strong or unpleasant odour, is associated with itch or soreness or associated with dysuria, then infection needs to be excluded. • Trichomoniasis is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but the effect of metronidazole for its treatment in pregnancy is unclear. • A topical imidazole is an effective treatment for thrush which is common during pregnancy but the effectiveness and safety of oral treatments for thrush in pregnancy is uncertain and these should be avoided. Skin Changes
Skin • Spider telangiectasis & palmar erythema : Due to increased estrogen or cutaneous
vasodilatation. • Hyperpigmentation: Due to increased estrogen or melanocyte stimulating hormone or ACTH I Chloasma gravidarum :
((mask of pregnancy)) a butterfly pigmentation on the cheeks and nose . It usually disappears few months after labour . II Linea Nigra
II Pigmentation in midline below the umbilicus III Stria gravidarum
III • Pigmentation in the lower • abdomen, flanks , inner thighs, buttocks & breast and increase as pregnancy advances.
It starts pink (stria rubra) then becomes pale to become white (stria albicans) after delivery, which persists. (Primigravida has stria rubra only ,while multigravida has both S.R and S.A). • Pelvic pain As the uterus grows, pulling and stretching of pelvic structures causes ligament pain which usually resolves by 22 weeks. • Backache Many women develop backache during pregnancy and it often first develops during the 5th to 7th months of pregnancy. Encourage light exercise and simple analgesia, and consider physiotherapy referral. Exercising in water, massage therapy and group or individual back care classes have been shown to be effective interventions. • Symphysis pubis dysfunction This is a collection of symptoms of discomfort and pain in the pelvic area, including pelvic pain radiating to the upper thighs and perineum. Discomfort can vary from mild to severe pain. There is no evidence for any specific treatment but elbow crutches, pelvic support and prescribed pain relief may help. • Peripheral paraesthesia Fluid retention leads to compression of peripheral nerves. This often leads to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, which can affect up to one half of all pregnancies. Often no specific treatment is required. Interventions include wrist splints, steroid injections and analgesia, but there is a lack of research evaluating effective interventions. Other nerves can be affected, e.g. lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh. • Leg cramps Leg cramps occur in 1 in 3 pregnancies. They occur in late pregnancy and are usually worse at night. Massaging the affected leg and elevation of the foot of the bed may help. Dr. Morsi W. AbdAllah ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.
- Fall '11