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Oral Cancer Pwr.Pnt.-1

Oral Cancer Pwr.Pnt.-1 - Oral Cavity and Oral Cavity and...

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Unformatted text preview: Oral Cavity and Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer By: Monica Castillo August 5, 2004 Background Info. Background Info. Oral Cavity = Mouth Lips, inside lining of the lips and cheeks, the teeth, the gums, the front two­thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth below the tongue, the bony roof of the mouth (hard palate), and the area behind the wisdom teeth. www.americancancersociety.org More Info… More Info… Oropharyngeal cancer develops in the part of the throat just behind the mouth, called the oropharynx. The oropharynx begins where the oral cavity stops. It includes the base of tongue (the back third of the tongue), the soft palate, the tonsils and tonsillar pillars, and the back wall of the throat. www.americancancersociety.org More Info… More Info… The oral cavity and oropharynx assist with breathing, talking, eating, chewing, and swallowing. Minor salivary glands located throughout the oral cavity and oropharynx make saliva that keeps the mouth moist and helps digest food. contain several types of tissue and each of these tissues contains several types of cells. Leukoplakia, Erythroplakia, and Leukoplakia, Erythroplakia, and Dysplasia Leukoplakia and Erythroplakia: an abnormal area in the mouth or throat. Leukoplakia: is a white area. Erythroplakia: is a slightly raised, red area that bleeds easily if scraped. These white or red areas may be a cancer, or they may be a precancerous condition called dysplasia. They could also be some relatively harmless condition. Malignant Oral Cavity and Malignant Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Tumors More than 90% of cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx are squamous cell carcinomas, also called squamous cell cancer. Squamous cells are flat, scale­like cells that normally form the lining of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Invasive squamous cell cancer means that the cancer cells have spread beyond this layer into deeper layers of the oral cavity or oropharynx. Risk Factors Risk Factors Tobacco: About 90% of people with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer use tobacco Alcohol: Drinking alcohol strongly increases a smoker's risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Ultraviolet light: More than 30% of patients with cancers of the lip have outdoor occupations associated with prolonged exposure to sunlight. Irritation: Long­term irritation to the lining of the mouth caused by poorly fitting dentures Risk Factors Cont… Risk Factors Cont… Poor nutrition: A diet low in fruits and vegetables is associated with an increased risk Mouthwash: Some studies have suggested that mouthwash with a high alcohol content Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: Immune system suppression: Age: The likelihood of developing oral and oropharyngeal cancer increases with age, especially after age 35. Gender: Oral and oropharyngeal cancer is twice as common in men as in women Tobacco & Alcohol Tobacco & Alcohol We know that tobacco and alcohol can damage cells in the lining of the oral cavity and oropharynx, and that cells in this layer must grow more rapidly to repair this damage. Many of the chemicals found in tobacco cause damage to DNA, which contains the cell's instructions for repair and growth. Scientists are not sure whether alcohol directly damages DNA, but they have shown that alcohol increases penetration of many DNA­damaging chemicals into cells How to Detect and Diagnose Oral How to Detect and Diagnose Oral Cancer Many cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx can be found early, during routine screening examinations by a doctor or dentist, or by self­examination. Symptoms Symptoms a sore in the mouth that does not heal (most common symptom) pain in the mouth that doesn't go away (also very common) a persistent lump or thickening in the cheek a persistent white or red patch on the gums, tongue, tonsil, or lining of the mouth a sore throat or a feeling that something is caught in the throat that doesn't go away More Symptoms More Symptoms difficulty chewing or swallowing difficulty moving the jaw or tongue swelling of the jaw that causes dentures to fit poorly or become uncomfortable loosening of the teeth or pain around the teeth or jaw voice changes a lump or mass in the neck weight loss persistent bad breath Estimated New Cancer Cases Estimated New Cancer Cases (2003) Oral Cavity & Pharynx 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 Both Men W omen Treatment & Survival Treatment & Survival Radiation therapy and surgery are standard treatments. In advanced disease, chemotherapy may be useful as an adjunct to surgery and or radiation. Survival for all stages combined, about 81% of oral cavity and pharynx cancer patients survive 1 year after diagnosis. The 5 year and 10 year survival rates are 56%and 41% respectively What happens after Treatment? What happens after Treatment? Speech and Swallowing Therapy Follow­up tests Chemoprevention Watch for new symptoms General health considerations What's new in oral cavity and What's new in oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer research and treatment? DNA changes: One of the changes often found in DNA of oral cancer cells is a mutation of the p53 gene. Recent studies suggest that tests to detect these p53 gene alterations may allow very early detection of oral and oropharyngeal tumors. These tests may also be used to better define surgical margins What’s New… What’s New… Tumor growth factors: Oral and oropharyngeal cancers with too many EGF receptors tend to be especially aggressive. New drugs that specifically recognize cells with too many EGF receptors are now being tested in clinical trials. These drugs work by preventing EGF from promoting reproduction of cancer cells, and may also help the patient's immune system recognize and attack the cancer What’s New… What’s New… New chemotherapy New radiotherapy methods Vaccines: Some oral and oropharyngeal cancers contain DNA from human papillomaviruses, vaccines against these viruses are being studied as a treatment for these cancers . Gene therapy: Another type of gene therapy adds new genes to the cancer cells to make them more susceptible to being killed by certain drugs ...
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