Pneumonia in Children

Pneumonia in Children - Pneumonia: Past and Present...

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Pneumonia: Past and Present Pneumonia: Past and Present Dr. Pushpa Raj Sharma Professor of Child Health Institute of Medicine
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Disease Pattern Disease Pattern
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Epidemiology Epidemiology Each year, acute respiratory infections cause approximately 2-3 million deaths among children <5 years old and are the leading cause of death in this age group. About 1% of pneumonia cases result in sequelae (e.g., bronchiectasis) Identifying the cause of community-acquired pneumonia is more difficult in children
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Children with ARI presenting in Children with ARI presenting in OPD OPD Place % of children London (UK) 35.0 Herston (Australia) 34 Ethiopia (Whole country) 25.5 Sau aulo (Brazil) 41.8 India 38.9 Nepal 37.6
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Number of Pneumonia Episodes Per Number of Pneumonia Episodes Per Year in Childeren Under 5 Years Year in Childeren Under 5 Years Place Annual Incidence per 100 Seattle (USA) 3.0 Gadchiorili (India) 13.0 Basse, (Gambia) 17.0 Bankok (Thailand) 7.0 Nepal 16.5
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Epidemiology Epidemiology A lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) develops in one in three children in the first year of life. Twenty-nine percent of these children develop pneumonia Approximately 10-20% of all children <5 years old in developing countries develop pneumonia each year
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Risk Factors Risk Factors Significant risk factors were younger age (2-6 months), low parental education, smoking at home, prematurity, weaning from breast milk at < 6 months, a negative history of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccination, anaemia and malnutrition. Trop Doct 2001 Jul;31(3):139-41
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Pathology Pathology
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Pathology Pathology
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Types of Pneumonia Types of Pneumonia Currently pneumonias are defined as either community- acquired (CAP) or nosocomial or hospital-acquired . CAP is defined as an infection acquired in the community setting; the definition varies and it may or may not include infections acquired in a nursing home or long-term care facility
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Aetiological agents Aetiological agents The exact incidence varies but in a meta-analysis of 122 cases of CAP, it accounted for 66% of cases in which a microbiological diagnosis was made. Exact incidences of the various aetiologic organisms are not known.
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Diagnosis Diagnosis Clinical evaluation of pneumonia Cough, Grunting, Chest pain, Tachypnea. Retractions, Signs of consolidation, Crackles Wheezing , Cyanosis, Abdominal pain , Drooping of shoulder.
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Mechanism of cough Mechanism of cough Bronchioles and Respiratory bronchiole Bronchioles and Respiratory bronchiole alveolus alveolus
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Signs of Pneumonia Signs of Pneumonia
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Symptoms and Signs in Pneumonia Symptoms and Signs in Pneumonia 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cough Indrawing Convulsion Cyanosis Abdominal pain crepitations Fast breathing Wheeze
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Comparison of Methods for the Comparison of Methods for the Detection of Pneumonia in Children Detection of Pneumonia in Children Method Sensitivity Specificity Stethoscope 53% 59% (crepetations) Simple clinical signs 77% 58% (fast breathing or chest indrawing) Note: Pneumonia diagnosis confirmed by Chest X-ray
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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Pneumonia in Children - Pneumonia: Past and Present...

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