Staghorn - Staghorn calculi causes and treatment Brad...

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Staghorn calculi – causes and treatment Brad Weaver 8/19/08
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Struvite stones Composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate “triple phosphate” crystals Precipitate at alkaline pH created by urease producing bacteria such as Proteus or Klebsiella Urease Urea 2NH3 + CO2 NH3 + H20 NH4+ + OH-
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Magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals – orthorhombic shape
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Struvite stones cont. Occur 3:1 ratio female:male More common in those anatomically predisposed to infection such as with neurogenic bladder or urinary diversion Staghorn calculi may also contain mixed calcium/struvite or all calcium stones The presence of calcium warrants metabolic workup for cause of stones
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Struvite stone symptoms Often no symptoms directly related to stone May present with UTI, flank pain, hematuria Passage of struvite stone is rare Can rapidly grow and lead to chronic pyelonephritis and parenchymal scarring Struvite stones are radiopaque and can be seen on AXR and CT
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radiopaque staghorn calculi
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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Staghorn - Staghorn calculi causes and treatment Brad...

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