Under_Grad_TRACHOMA

Under_Grad_TRACHOMA - TRACHOMA At one time known as...

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19 February 2008 Dr Sanjay Shrivastava 1 TRACHOMA • At one time known as Egyptian Ophthalmia, endemic in middle east during prehistoric period, spread far and wide in Europe by French army during Napoleonic wars. Trachoma is still a leading cause of preventable blindness world wide, third after cataract and glaucoma.
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19 February 2008 Dr Sanjay Shrivastava 2 Epidemiology • Approximately 1/5 th population of world is affected by Trachoma, amounting to 150 million people across the 48 countries . It is estimated that 6 million people are blind in both eyes. It still remains a significant problem in areas of Africa, South East Asia, the Middle East and Australia.
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19 February 2008 Dr Sanjay Shrivastava 3 Etiology • Trachoma is caused by Chlamydia Trachomatis immunotypes / serotypes A,B and C. Chlamydia organisms shares properties of both, bacteria and virus. It is an obligatory intracellular bacteria.
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19 February 2008 Dr Sanjay Shrivastava 4 Predisposing Factors • Unhygienic and crowded surroundings • Low socio-economic status • Lack of water • No race is exempted
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19 February 2008 Dr Sanjay Shrivastava 5 Transmission • Direct transmission from eye to eye through discharge • Through fomites, flies and eye cosmetics • Disease is contagious in acute phase • Incubation period is 5 -12 days
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19 February 2008 Dr Sanjay Shrivastava 6 Clinical Features
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19 February 2008 Dr Sanjay Shrivastava 7 Symptoms • Pure Trachoma is usually asymptomatic condition or there may be minimum symptoms • There may be redness, irritation, discharge, foreign body sensation, watering and photophobia • Systemic symptoms like rhinitis, pre auricular lymphadenopathy and upper respiratory tract infection may be present
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19 February 2008 Dr Sanjay Shrivastava 8 Symptoms … Contd • Onset is usually sub-acute, but may occur as acute when infection is massive as occurs in experimental or accidental or clinical infection
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19 February 2008 Dr Sanjay Shrivastava 9 Signs • Primary infection is epithelial, involving conjunctiva and cornea characterized by: conjunctival congestion, upper tarsal conjunctiva appears red and velvety, later may become uniformly thick like jelly. Follicles are found in lower fornix, upper fornix, upper margin of tarsus, caruncle, plica, palpabral conjunctiva, bulbar conjunctiva near limbus
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19 February 2008 Dr Sanjay Shrivastava 10 Signs … contd. • Follicles are small (0.5 mm in diameter) but may measure up to 5 mm in diameter. • Papillary enlargement.
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Dr Sanjay Shrivastava 11 Corneal Signs • Superficial Keratitis in upper part • Epithelial erosion, extending deep into stroma • Pannus is lymphoid infiltration with vascularization seen in upper half, tending to spread towards the centre . Whole cornea may be covered with pannus . Vessels are superficial between epithelium
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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Under_Grad_TRACHOMA - TRACHOMA At one time known as...

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