weight management pathophysiology risk assess

Nurture vs nature environmental factors influence

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Unformatted text preview: e normal weight – 10% If chance of obesity in offspring chance • If one parent is obese – 40% chance • If both parents obese – 80% chance Is it genetics or learned eating behavior? Nurture vs Nature • • • • • • Environmental factors influence weight Learned eating habits Activity factor (or lack of) Poverty and obesity Female obesity is rooted in childhood Female obesity obesity Male obesity appears after age 30 Nurture vs Nature • • • • Overeating learned early in childhood Bottle vs breast Urging children to eat more, clean their Urging plates plates Use of food as a reward Food = Love Shelly Thorene Photography Nature and Nurture • • • Obesity is nurture allowing nature to Obesity express itself express Location of fat is influenced by genetics A child of obese parents must always be child concerned about his weight concerned Nature and Nurture • The influence of The environment is apparent in the fact that the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in the US in the past 40 years the Causes of Obesity Causes of Excessive Energy Intake • • • Active: large portion sizes, frequent meals Active: and snacks and Passive: excessive intake of energy-dense Passive: foods containing hidden calories foods Variety of options: the greater the variety of Variety foods offered, the greater the intake foods • Sensory-specific satiety: as foods are Sensory-specific consumed they become less appealing consumed Low Energy Expenditure • There is a mismatch between our thrifty There metabolic genetic heritage and the sedentary American lifestyle American Obesity is a Growing Problem • • • • 127 million adults in the U.S. are 127 overweight, 60 million obese, and 9 million severely obese. 66 percent of U.S. adults are overweight 66 (BMI≥25) (BMI 32 percent are obese (BMI≥30) 17% of children and adolescents ages 2-19 17% are overweight are Obesity Trends* Among U.S. Adults BRFSS Prevalence of Obesity in Ohio 25 20 15 % of adults 10 5 0 1991 1995 1998 1999 2000 2001 Obesity: A Major Health Issue • • • • Obesity is the No. 2 preventable cause of death Obesity and disability (smoking is #1) and Obesity is associated with increased risk of heart Obesity disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, cancer, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea osteoarthritis, Obesity-related health problems cost $75 billion Obesity-related annually (2003 data) annually The public pays about $39 billion a year --...
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