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weight management pathophysiology risk assess

Dietary intake starvation decreases in serotonin and

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Unformatted text preview: ransmitters • • • • Neurotransmitters govern the body’s response to Neurotransmitters starvation and dietary intake starvation Decreases in serotonin and increases in Decreases neuropeptide Y are associated with an increase in carbohydrate appetite carbohydrate Neuropeptide Y increases during deprivation; may Neuropeptide account for increase in appetite after dieting account Cravings for sweet high-fat foods among obese Cravings and bulimic patients may involve the endorphin system system Hormonal Regulation of Body Weight • • Norepinephrine and dopamine—released Norepinephrine by sympathetic nervous system in response to dietary intake response Fasting and semistarvation lead to Fasting decreased levels of these neurotransmitters—more epinephrine is made and substrate is mobilized. made Hormones and Weight • • • Hypothyroidism may diminish adaptive Hypothyroidism thermogenesis thermogenesis Insulin resistance may impair adaptive Insulin thermogenesis thermogenesis Leptin is secreted in proportion to percent Leptin adipose tissue and may regulate (decrease) appetite appetite Hunger vs. Satiety • • • Satiety—postprandial state when excess food Satiety—postprandial is being stored is Hunger—postabsorptive state when stores are Hunger—postabsorptive being mobilized being Short-term regulation affected Hunger vs. Satiety—cont’d • • • • Feedback mechanism with signal from Feedback adipose mass when weight loss occurs— adipose eating is the natural result eating Not always identified in the elderly This occurs mostly in young people Long-term regulation affected Nature vs Nurture • • • • Identical twins raised apart have similar Identical weights weights Genetics account for ~40%-70% of weight Genetics differences differences Genes affect metabolic rate, fuel use, brain Genes chemistry, body shape chemistry, Thrifty metabolism gene allows for more fat Thrifty storage to protect against famine Nature vs Nurture Obesity tends to run in families • If both parents ar...
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