weight management pathophysiology risk assess

Weight management pathophysiology risk assess

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Unformatted text preview: Obesity: Pathophysiology, Risk Assessment, and Prevalence Obesity • • • • Excessive amount of body fat • Women with > 35% body fat • Men with > 25% body fat Increased risk for health problems Increased Are usually overweight, but can have Are healthy BMI and high % fat healthy Measurements using calipers Desirable % Body Fat • • Men: 8-25% Women 20-35% Regional Distribution • The regional distribution of body fat affects The risk factors for the heart disease and type 2 diabetes diabetes Body Fat Distribution: Gynecoid • • • • Lower-body obesity--Pear shape Encouraged by estrogen and progesterone Less health risk than upper-body obesity After menopause, upper-body obesity After appears appears Body Fat Distribution: Android • • • • • Upper-body obesity--apple shape Associated with more heart disease, HTN, Type Associated II Diabetes II Abdominal fat is released right into the liver Encouraged by testosterone and excessive Encouraged alcohol intake alcohol Defined as waist measurement of > 40” for men Defined and >35” for women and Body Fat Distribution Weight Management • Balancing energy intake and energy Balancing expenditure is the basis of weight management throughout life management Set Point Theory • • • Body tends to preserve a given weight Energy expenditure increases and decreases Energy with weight loss and gain with Effect may be temporary, e.g. energy needs Effect drop during calorie restriction and normalize when energy balance is achieved normalize Components of Energy Expenditure • • • Resting energy expenditure: expressed as Resting RMR RMR Energy expended in voluntary activity Thermic effect of food (TEF) or dietinduced thermogenesis (DIT) • Related to energy value of food Related consumed and adaptive response to overeating overeating • TEF may decline as day progresses TEF (Romon, AJCN, 1993) Resting Metabolic Rate • • • • Increases with increased muscle mass Declines with age Declines Declines during restriction of energy intake Declines (up to 15%) (up Explains 60-70% of total energy Explains expenditure expenditure Voluntary Energy Expenditure (activity thermogenesis) • • • The most variable component of energy The expenditure expenditure Accounts for 15-30% of total Accounts Most of us will require increasing voluntary Most energy expenditure as we age to offset declining fat free mass and RMR in order to maintain weight maintain Role of Brain Neurot...
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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