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Unformatted text preview: Child Psychiatry
Department of Psychiatry
1st Faculty of Medicine
Charles University, Prague
Head: Prof. MUDr. Jiří Raboch, DrSc. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Differences of Child psychiatry from adult psychiatry: The child’s existence and emotional development depends on the family or care givers cooperation with family members; sometimes written consent The developmental stages are very important assessment of the diagnosis Use of psychopharmacotherapy is less common in comparison to adult psychiatry Children are less able to express themselves in words The child who suffers by psychiatric problems in childhood can be an emotionally stable person in adulthood, but some of the psychic disturbances can change a whole life of the child and his family Disorders of Psychological
F80 Specific developmental disorders of speech and F80
language F81 Specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills F82 Specific developmental disorder of motor function F83 Mixed specific developmental disorders F84 Pervasive developmental disorders F88 Other disorders of psychological development F89 Unspecified disorder of psychological development F80 Specific Developmental
Disorders of Speech and Language
F80.9 Specific developmental disorders of speech and language Specific speech articulation disorder Expressive language disorder Receptive language disorder Acquired aphasia with epilepsy (Landau
Other developmental disorders of speech and language Developmental disorder of speech and language, unspecified F80.0 Specific Speech Articulation
Disorder A specific developmental disorder in which the child's use of speech sounds is below the appropriate level for its mental age, but in which there is a normal level of language skills. The articulation abnormalities are not caused by a neurological abnormality and nonverbal intelligence is within normal range.
Developmental: • phonological disorder
• speech articulation disorder Dyslalia
Functional speech articulation disorder
Lalling F80.1 Expressive Language
Disorder A specific developmental disorder in which the child's ability to use expressive spoken language is markedly below the appropriate level for its mental age, but in which language comprehension is within normal limits. There may or may not be abnormalities in articulation. Developmental dysphasia or aphasia, expressive type F80.2 Receptive Language
Disorder A specific developmental disorder in which the child's understanding of language is below the appropriate level for its mental age, particularly in more subtle aspects of language grammatical structures, tone of voice. The social reciprocity and make believe play is normal and severe hearing disturbances are not present.
Developmental: • dysphasia or aphasia, receptive type
• Wernicke's aphasia Word deafness F80.3 Acquired Aphasia with
Epilepsy The child loses receptive and expressive language skills after previous period of normal language development. The paroxysmal abnormalities on the EEG are present and in the majority of cases epileptic seizures occur as well. Some children become mute in a period of few months.
Usually the onset is between the ages of three and seven years, with skills being lost over days or weeks.
An inflammatory encephalitic process has been suggested as a possible cause of this disorder. About twothirds of patients are left with a more or less severe receptive language deficit. Treatment
Treatment Cooperation of neurologist and speech therapist is very important.
Psychiatric treatment is necessary if the child has secondary psychic problems, for example in relationship with other children or family.
Nootropic drugs, psychotherapy and special education are useful. F81 Specific Developmental
Disorders of Scholastic Skills
Disorders in which the normal patterns of skill acquisition are disturbed from the early stages of development.
F81.9 Specific developmental disorders of scholastic skills Specific reading disorder Specific spelling disorder Specific disorder of arithmetical skills Mixed disorder of scholastic skills Other developmental disorders of scholastic skills Developmental disorder of scholastic skills, unspecified F81.0 Specific Reading Disorder
F81.0 The child’s reading performance is below his level of mental age. Poor schooling, mental or visual impairment is not the cause of the delay.
The child has difficulties in reciting the alphabet, there are omissions of words, distortions of the content of the facts from material read and rate of reading is very slow.
Associated emotional and behavioural disturbances are common during the school age period. • "Backward reading" • Developmental dyslexia
• Specific reading retardation F81.1 Specific Spelling Disorder
F81.1 Specific and significant impairment in the development of spelling skills in the absence of a history of specific reading disorder, which is not solely accounted for by low mental age, visual acuity problems, or inadequate schooling.
The ability to spell orally and to write out words correctly are both affected. • Specific spelling retardation (without reading disorder) F81.2 Specific Disorder of
Arithmetical The arithmetical performance is significantly below the level of the general intelligence, reading and spelling skills are within normal rage. The deficit concerns mastery of basic computational skills of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division rather than of the more abstract mathematical skills involved in algebra, trigonometry, geometry, or calculus. Developmental: •
Gerstmann's syndrome F81.3 Mixed Disorder of
Scholastic The child can suffer from all previously described specific developmental disorder of scholastic skills (both arithmetical and reading or spelling skills are significantly impaired)
Disorder is not solely explicable in terms of general mental retardation or of inadequate schooling F82 Specific Developmental
Disorder of Motor Function
Disorder Serious impairment in the development of motor coordination that is not solely explicable in terms of general intellectual retardation or of any specific congenital or acquired neurological disorder
The child is generally clumsy in fine and gross movements; there are difficulties in learning to tie shoe laces, to run, to throw the balls. Drawing skills are usually also poor
In most cases marked neurodevelopmental immaturities
• Clumsy child syndrome
• Developmental: coordination disorder
Treatment The family and the school have to be properly informed about the child’s disorder.
Special educational training is necessary, nootropic drugs are useful.
For children with coordination difficulties special physical education programs may be help to enhance the child’s selfesteem and ability to interact with peers. F84 Pervasive Developmental
Disorders Disorders characterized by qualitative abnormalities in reciprocal social interactions and in patterns of communication, and by a restricted, stereotyped, repetitive repertoire of interests and activities. F84
F84.9 Pervasive developmental disorders Childhood autism Atypical autism Rett's syndrome Other childhood disintegrative disorder Overactive disorder associated with mental retardation and stereotyped movements Asperger's syndrome Other pervasive developmental disorders Pervasive developmental disorder, unspecified F84.0 Childhood Autism
F84.0 Described by Kanner 1943 as infantile autisms
Autisms are severe impairment of developmental disorder which presents before age of 3 years. The abnormal functioning manifest in the area of social interaction, communication and repetitive behaviour
There are typical features of clinical picture:
• Inability to relate
Disorders in development of speech
Stereotyped behaviour F84.0 Childhood Autism
F84.0 The cause of childhood autism is unknown, studies of twins suggest genetic etiology
The deficits continue through whole life; great impact on his abilities to socialize and communicate with other people
6080% of autistic children are unable to lead independent life
IQ level can be normal
3040 cases per 100 000 children; more common in boys than in girls
• Autistic disorder Infantile:
psychosis • Kanner's syndrome Treatment
Treatment Specific treatment is unknown.
Autistic children usually require special schooling or residential schooling although attempts of integrations are also started. Special techniques for teaching autistic children and special psychotherapeutic approaches were developed.
Sometimes antipsychotic drugs and antidepressants are used to cope with aggressive behaviour and depression. F84.1 Atypical Autism
F84.1 A type of pervasive developmental disorder that differs from childhood autism either in age of onset or in failing to fulfill all diagnostic criteria
Abnormal and impaired development manifests after age 3 years or there are impairments in communication and stereotyped behaviour is present, but emotional response to caregivers is not affected.
Atypical autism is diagnosed often in profoundly retarded individuals.
• Atypical childhood psychosis
• Mental retardation with autistic features F84.2 Rett's Syndrome
(Described by Rett 1964)
(Described The syndrome was described only in girls
Normal early development is followed by partial or complete loss of speech and of skills in locomotion and use of hands, together with deceleration in head growth In most cases onset is between 7 and 24 months of age.
Loss of purposive hand movements, handwringing stereotypies, and hyperventilation
Social interaction is poor in early childhood, but can develop later
Motor functioning is more affected in middle childhood, muscles are hypotonic, kyphoscoliosis and rigid spasticity in the lower limbs occurs in majority of cases
Aggressive behaviour and self injury are rather rare, the antipsychotic drugs for the control of challenging behaviour is not often needed. F84.5 Asperger's Syndrome
F84.5 Described by Asperger as autistic psychopathy in 1944.
Characterized by the same kind of impairmentof social activities and stereotyped features of behaviour as is described in autistic children. There is no delay of speech and cognitive development. The condition occurs predominantly in boys (8:1)
Often associated with marked clumsiness.
There is a strong tendency for the abnormalities to persist into adolescence and adult life. Psychotic episodes occasionally occur in early adult life. • Autistic psychopathy • Schizoid disorder of childhood F84.3 Other Childhood
Disintegrative These are very rare developmental disorders with a short period of normal development before onset. The child looses his acquired skills within few months.
General loss of interest in the environment, stereotyped, repetitive motor mannerisms, and autisticlike abnormalities in social interaction and communication. These children usually remain without speech and unable to lead independent lives.
• Dementia infantilis
Symbiotic psychosis Behavioural and Emotional Disorders
with Onset Usually Occurring in
Childhood and Adolescence (F90-F98)
F94 Hyperkinetic disorders Conduct disorders Mixed disorders of conduct and emotions Emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood Disorders of social functioning with onset specific to childhood and adolescence F95 Tic disorders F98 Other behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence F90 Hyperkinetic Disorders
F90.9 Hyperkinetic disorders Disturbance of activity and attention Hyperkinetic conduct disorder Other hyperkinetic disorders Hyperkinetic disorder, unspecified F90 Hyperkinetic Disorders
F90 Hyperkinetic disorders occur mostly in first five years of life, and they are several times more frequent in boys than in girls
The main marks of the syndrome are:
• hyperactivity ADHD: AttentionDeficit Hyperactivity Disorder (formerly MBD: minimal brain dysfunction)
Prevalence is from 3% to 10% of elementaryschool children F90 Hyperkinetic Disorders
F90 Etiology: genetic predisposition, maternal deprivation, environmental toxins or intrauterine or postnatal brain damage
About 50% of children with hyperkinetic syndrome have so called „soft signs” and minor abnormalities in EEG
IQ: from subnormal to high intelligence
Specific learning disabilities often coexist with hyperkinetic syndrome
Types of hyperactivity syndrome:
• disturbance of activity and attention
• hyperkinetic conduct disorder Treatment
Treatment Parents and teachers have to be advised how to cope with hyperactive children Nootropic drugs and mild doses of antipsychotics are sometimes prescribed. Stimulant drugs as methylphenidate sometimes have the paradoxical effect, according to theory, that stimulants act by reducing the excessive, poorly synchronized variability in the various dimensions of arousal and reactivity seen in ADHD.
Stimulants are the drugs of first choice F91 Conduct Disorders
Conduct disorders are diagnosed when the child is showing persistent and serious dissocial or aggressive behaviour patterns, such as excessive fighting or bullying, cruelty to animals or other people, destructiveness to property, stealing, lying, and truancy from school and running away from home.
F91.9 Conduct disorders Conduct disorder confined to the family context Unsocialized conduct disorder Socialized conduct disorder Oppositional defiant disorder Other conduct disorders Conduct disorder, unspecified F91.0 Conduct Disorder
Confined to the Family Context
Confined The dissocial or aggressive behaviour is intent on family members and occurs mostly at home or immediate household. Stealing from home and destruction of beloved property of particular family members is typical. Social relationships outside the family are within the normal range. F91.1 Unsocialized Conduct
Disorder Aggressive and dissocial behaviour is connected with the child’s poor relationships with other children and peers groups.
There is a lack of close friends, rejection by other children, unpopularity in the school and hostile feelings toward adults. F91.2 Socialized Conduct
Disorder The diagnosis is applied when the child is showing aggressive and dissocial behaviour, but relationship with children of the same age is adequate. F91.3 Oppositional Defiant
Disorder Children under age of 9 to 10 years, showing persistently negativistic, provocative and disruptive behaviour.
The more aggressive conduct disorders are not present, general law and rights of other people are respected.
This type of behaviour is often directed towards a new member of the family i.e. step father. Treatment
Treatment Family situation should be consider and its relation to the child’s disorder. The family therapy is necessary to enhance emotional support and understanding. In the cases of dysfunctional families, abused or neglected children, an adoptive homes, foster care or supervised residence is recommended.
Court intervention is required for the placement. F92 Mixed Disorders of Conduct
and A group of disorders characterized by the combination of persistently aggressive, dissocial or defiant behaviour with overt and marked symptoms of depression, anxiety or other emotional upsets
Mood disorders in children are often expressed by a challenging behaviour or somatic symptoms F92 Mixed disorders of conduct and emotions F92.0 Depressive conduct disorder F92.8 Other mixed disorders of conduct and emotions F92.9 Mixed disorder of conduct and emotions, unspecified F93 Emotional Disorders with
Onset Specific to Childhood
F93.9 Emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood Separation anxiety disorder of childhood Phobic anxiety disorder of childhood Social anxiety disorder of childhood Sibling rivalry disorder Other childhood emotional disorders Childhood emotional disorder, unspecified F93.0 Separation Anxiety
Disorder of Childhood
Disorder The child is showing anxiety when being separated from persons who are for him emotionally important parents, family members. Developmental stage should be considered
School refusal is often a symptom of separation anxiety disorders
Treatment: • in the case of school refusal the child should be returned to school immediately and strict limits should be established
• the treatment is focused on family structure and recommendation in the ways of upbringing.
• in severe cases use of antidepressants is necessary F93.1 Phobic Anxiety Disorder
of The phobic states most commonly encountered in children involve fear of animals, insects, dark and school. Animal and insect phobias usually start at the age of 5 years and almost none start in adult life. Some phobias start in the late adolescence i.e. agoraphobia
Treatment: • psychotherapy and a sensible parental handling is recommended
• the anxiety reducing techniques are useful, i.e. desensitization F93.2 Social Anxiety Disorder of
Childhood There is a wariness of strangers and social apprehension or anxiety when encountering new, strange, or socially threatening situations. This category should be used only where such fears arise during the early years, and are both unusual in degree and accompanied by problems in social functioning.
A fear of social encounters is associated with avoidance behaviour, which produces problems in functioning in a peers group and in the school performance as well. The social acceptance of the child can be very difficult and can have impact on his or hers further personal development. Treatment: • psychotherapy
• anxiolytic drugs F93.3 Sibling Rivalry Disorder
F93.3 Some degree of emotional disturbance usually following the birth of an immediately younger sibling is shown by a majority of young children.
Sibling rivalry disorder should be diagnosed only if the degree or persistence of the disturbance is both statistically unusual and associated with abnormalities of social interaction.
The children with sibling rivalry disorder are acting with serious hatred to the new born, in severe cases they are showing physical harming behaviour and persistent competition to gain parents attention.
• psychotherapy dealing with family structure
• prevention F94 Disorders of Social
Functioning with Onset Specific to
Childhood and Adolescence
This group of disorders is characterized by abnormalities in social functioning which are not associated with severe deficit and social incapacity found in pervasive developmental disorders.
F94.9 Disorders of social functioning with onset specific to childhood and adolescence Elective mutism Reactive attachment disorder of childhood Disinhibited attachment disorder of childhood Other childhood disorders of social functioning Childhood disorder of social functioning, unspecified F94.0 Elective Mutism
F94.0 Characterized by a marked, emotionally determined selectivity in speaking, such that the child demonstrates a language competence in some situations but fails to speak in other (definable) situations
These children show specific personality features as social anxiety and oversensitivity.
Treatment: • psychotherapy
• in severe cases anxiolytic drugs F94.1 Reactive Attachment
Disorder of Childhood
Disorder Characterized by abnormal social responses of the child to the care givers that develop before age of 5 years. The disorder is often an outcome of a parental neglect, abuse or mishandling and deprivation in institutional care.
The child shows fearfulness, poor social interaction with peers, aggressive responses and self injurious behaviour. The language development could also be delayed and impaired physical growth can occur.
• avoidance of mishandling in institutional care good foster homes and adoption policy
social vigilance to inept parenting F94.2 Disinhibited Attachment
Disorder of Childhood
Disorder Abnormal social functioning develops during first 5 years in children who have no opportunity of emotionally stable relationship with care givers. The disturbance can be recognized in children growing from infancy in institutions or experiencing extremely frequent changes in care givers.
To avoid this developmental disturbance good adoption policy is necessary. Non attachment institutional care should be excluded from praxis. F95 Tic Disorders
Tic A tic is an involuntary, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic motor movement (usually involving circumscribed muscle groups) or vocal production that is of sudden onset and that serves no apparent purpose
Tics are experienced as irresistible, but can be suppressed for shorter periods of time
Conditions of diagnosis are also a lack of neurological disorder, repetitiveness, disappearance during sleep, lack of rhythmicity, and lack of purpose F95 Tic Disorders
Tic Simple motor tics: eyeblinking, neckjerking, shoulder
shrugging, facial grimacing
Simple vocal tics: throat clearing, barking, sniffing, hissing
Complex motor tics: jumping and hopping
Complex vocal tics: repetition of particular words or sentences, and sometimes the use of socially unacceptable (often obscene) words (coprolalia), and the repetition of one's own sounds or words (palilalia) Classification of Tic Disorders
F95.2 Tic disorders Transient tic disorder Combined vocal and multiple motor tic disorder (de la Tourette)
F95.8 Other tic disorders F95.9 Tic disorder, unspecified Treatment
Treatment Sleep therapy
Behavioural and cognitive therapy
Cooperation with the family is important. F98 Other Behavioural and Emotional
Disorders with Onset Usually Occurring in
Childhood and Adolescence
F98 Other behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence F98.0 Nonorganic enuresis F98.1 Nonorganic encopresis F98.2 Feeding disorder of infancy and childhood F98.3 Pica of infancy and childhood F98.4 Stereotyped movement disorders F98.5 Stuttering (stammering) F98.6 Cluttering F98.8 Other specified behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in F98.9 Unspecified behavioural and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence F98.0 Nonorganic Enuresis
F98.0 The child is not able of voluntary bladder control during the day (enuresis diurnal) or during the night (enuresis nocturnal)
The enuresis may be present from birth (enuresis primaria), or it may occur after a period of time of acquired bladder control (enuresis secundaria)
There is no neurological disorder or structural abnormality of urinary system, or lack of bladder control is not due to epileptic attacks or cystitis or diabetic polyuria
Enuresis is not diagnosed in a child less than 4 years of mental age
Emotional problems may arise as a secondary consequence of enuresis Treatment
Treatment Mild restriction of fluids before bedtime
Waking for the toilet during the night
Rewarding success and not to focus attention on failure
Antidepressants F98.1 Nonorganic Encopresis
F98.1 The diagnosis involves repeated intended or unintended passage of faeces in places not appropriate for that purpose.
a) result of inappropriate toilet training
b) the child is able of bowel control, but because of different reasons is refusing to defecate in appropriate places
c) physiological problems or emotional problems Encopresis can be accompanied by smearing of faeces over the body or environment or is a part of anal masturbation. It occurs in children with emotional or behavioural disturbances or mentally retarded persons. Treatment
Treatment Psychotherapy • to reward success
• the child is taught toestablish more normal bowel habit, for example by sitting on the toilet regularly after the meals Anxiolytics or antidepressants F98.2 Feeding Disorder of
Infancy and Childhood
Infancy Feeding disorder generally involves food refusal and extreme faddiness in the presence of an adequate food supply, a reasonably competent caregiver, and the absence of organic disease. Can be associated with rumination (repeated regurgitation without nausea)
Occurs often in children in institutional care or mentally retarded F98.3 Pica of Infancy and
Childhood Persistent eating of non nutritive substances (soil, wall paint)
Common in mentally retarded children or very young children with normal intelligence level F98.4 Stereotyped Movement
Disorders Voluntary, repetitive, stereotyped, nonfunctional (and often rhythmic) movements that do not form part of any recognized psychiatric or neurological condition.
The non selfinjurious movements:
handflapping repetitive headbanging
biting of hands, lips or other body parts Stereotyped selfinjurious behaviour: In mentally retarded children, or in some children with visual impairment. F98.5 Stuttering (Stammering)
F98.5 Frequent repetition of prolongation of sounds or syllables or words
Could be transient phase in early childhood or persistent speech failure until adult life F98.6 Cluttering
F98.6 A rapid rate of speech with breakdown in fluency, but no repetitions or hesitations, of a severity to give rise to diminished speech intelligibility. Speech is erratic and dysrhythmic, with rapid jerky spurts that usually involve faulty phrasing patterns F98.8 Other Specified Behavioural and
Emotional Disorders with Onset Usually
Occurring in Childhood and Adolescence
Occurring Attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity
Nail — biting
Nose — picking
Thumb — sucking Psychic Disorders that Usually Occur in
Adulthood but Can Have Early Onset in
Childhood or Adolescence
Childhood Schizophrenic disorders with early onset in childhood occur, but they are very rare and the prognosis is poor, because of influence on psychic development. Treatment quite often includes antipsychotic drugs and residential care
Manicdepressive disorder is rare before puberty, but increases in incidence during adolescence
Treatment resembles that of adults, only electroconvulsive therapy is not applied before adolescence Child Abuse
Child The term child abuse is used to indicate physical abuse, sexual abuse, or emotional abuse and child neglect.
Child care after divorce: • some parents are not able to reach consent about child care after divorce period, so child psychiatrist is asked by the court to give an advice on the best solution for the children
• after divorce disagreements are traumatic for the children and the child psychiatrist’s statements should be very carefully expressed, to protect the well being and future development of the child
• the parental rights of both parents mother and father should be respected and protected
• cooperation with child psychologist and social workers is necessary Development of Drawing
clew 3 years old 4 years old Test of maturity:
Eva is here. 5 years old 6 years old Drawing of healthy child 4 year old: „Mama“ Drawing of twins 4 years old:
left – mental retardation, right healthy Drawing of a boy 6 years old suffering from schizophrenic disorder Drawing of a boy 16 years old suffering from catatonic schizophrenia Drawing of a boy 10 years old suffering from conduct disorder: „Satanic court“ Drawing of a girl 10 years old suffering from dysgraphia: „Figure“ Drawing of a boy 14 years old suffering from mental anorexia Performance therapy at a boy 9 years old in adoptive family Performance therapy at a boy 10 years old suffering from relation disorders Performance therapy at a boy 7 years old with confrontation to father ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2011 for the course STEP 1 taught by Professor Dr.aslam during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.
- Fall '11