final study guide L&M

final study guide L&M - Prefrontal Cortex Working...

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Prefrontal Cortex Working with memory or working memory - how do you learn what is important to pay attention to - what to tune out. A. What is it? 1. Definition: a combination of storing and retrieving information plus some type of cognitive manipulation held over a brief period of consciousness a. it's basically anything you're working on at any given moment. 2. different than Olton's "working memory" definition which was more like a short term memory definition. 3. Can be divided into central executive (PFC) with multiple subsystems (various cortical areas) a. other areas area also involved in this system B. Example - "two-back task" a. subjects are presented with a string of stimuli, say "yes" to any stimuli that is the same as one "two-back" not the one before, but the one before that. C. role of PFC in memory is only a part of its larger role in multiple higher order cognitive functions a. personality, affect, problem solving II. Anatomy of PFC A. reaches its greatest elaboration and relative size in the primate brian - responsible for advanced cognitive skills. B. situated in the anterior end of the brain (fig 10.1) a. executive functions that has multiple connections with respect to the rest of the brain. b. it seems to a certain extent that the connections are very specific - not absolute but there is a pattern. c. a lot of interconnection within the prefrontal cortex. communicates intrinsically. C. composed for four general regions: medial, dorsolateral, ventrolateral, orbital. a. look up photo for a better idea. 1. areas are partially distinct in their connections. 2. considerable associative connections with each other. D. afferents and efferents - most of the cerebral cortex and subcortical areas. III. Role of PFC - humans A. Wisconsin Card Sorting Task a. three sorting criteria and subject has to figure it out on their own b. rules change constantly c. people with damaged prefrontal cortex have a lot of trouble with this task B. results of imaging studies indicated increased activity in PFC during performance of Wisconsin and similar tasks. C. results of lesion studies a. people with PFC damage often look like they have memory control but this is thought to be secondary. they may not be direct memory deficits but deficits in cognitive control. 1. deficits in memory that are likely secondary to deficits cognitive control. 2. severely impaired on Wisconsin Task (see fig in power point) a. typically can figure out the first rule, but have trouble making the switch. b. study (Barcelo and Knight 2002): 6 patients with strokes, old controls and young controls (to see if aging had anything to do with the deficit). generally old and young made less mistakes than the stroke patients. c. "efficient error" is a logical error. you are making an error that makes sense,
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final study guide L&M - Prefrontal Cortex Working...

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