12-12-11 Exam 4 Review Complete

12-12-11 Exam 4 Review Complete - ZOL445 Evolution November...

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ZOL445 Evolution November 12, 2011 Exam 4 Review Life History Evolution 1 Be able to interpret a life table. Age Fraction surviving Age- specific RS Expected RS of individual s x l x m x l x m x 0 1 0 0 1 0.8 0 0 2 0.6 1 0.6 o FITNESS = Σl x m x = Σ(fraction surviving)*(age specific RS) Explain how we age, according to the three major theories of aging: the rate-of-living theory, the mutation-accumulation theory and the antagonstic-pleitropy theory. o Rate-of-living theory : Metabolic wear-and-tear o Mutation-accumulation theory : Accumulation of deleterious mutations o Antagonistic-pleiotropy theory : Accumulation of alleles that increases fitness early in life and decreases fitness late in life. Explain why we age, according to each of the three major theories of aging. o Rate-of-living theory : Immutable evolutionary constraint; no genetic variation to repair. o Mutation-accumulation theory : Natural selection weak/absent against mutations that affect our fitness after reproduction o Antagonistic-pleiotropy theory : Natural selection weak/absent against mutations that affect our fitness after reproduction Life History Evolution 2 Understand the trade-offs that influence how many offspring an individual produces per year. o Offspring survival decreases with increasing clutch size Individuals from smaller clutches survive better Daughters from smaller clutches have larger clutches o Fitness of parent: Adult mortality increases with clutch size Females should maximize net benefits! o Fitness of current offspring vs. fitness of future offspring Fitness isoclines: If maximal future success is greater than current success, wait to reproduce! Use this understanding to predict how many offsping an individual will produce per year given the probability of offspring survival, and offspring and parental fitness.
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Apply life history theory to predict how big offspring should be. Explain the influence of genetic imprinting on offpsring size and why/how it has evolved.
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12-12-11 Exam 4 Review Complete - ZOL445 Evolution November...

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