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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Chemical Reactions I Introduction to...

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Chapter 3: Chemical Reactions I. Introduction to Chemical Equations General Information 1. Reactants Products 2. 2 CO (g) + O 2 (g) 2 CO 2 (g) 2 mols of CO react with 1 mol of O 2 to form 2 mols of CO 2 2 (28.0g) CO + 32.0 g O 2 2 (44.0 g) CO 2 3. In a chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destroyed, therefore, the mass of the reactants must equal the mass of the products . II. Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 1. Write the correct formula for each reactant and each product. 2. Balance the equation by placing the correct coefficients in front of the formula of the reactants and products. 3. While balancing chemical equations is essentially done by "inspection", there are a few guidelines that are useful and we will discuss these in lecture. 4. Balance the following equations: KNO 3 KNO 2 + O 2 NH 4 NO 3 N 2 O + H 2 O NaHCO 3 Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + CO 2 HCl + CaCO 3 CaCl 2 + H 2 O + CO 2 Cu + HNO 3 Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + NO 2 + H 2 O 1
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III. Introduction to Chemical Equilibrium 1. At the start of a chemical reaction, there are only reactants present. 2. As the reaction proceeds, reactants are converted to products. 3. Eventually, a condition is reached at which the forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate, this condition is called equilibrium. 4. Because the forward and reverse processes continue after equilibrium has been reached, the condition is referred to as dynamic equilibrium. 5. If most of the reactants have been converted to products when equilibrium is reached, the reaction is said to be product-favored. 6. If only a small amount of product has formed when equilibrium is reached, the reaction is reactant-favored. 7. In a chemical reaction, equilibrium is designated by double arrows between reactants and products.
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