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APPROACHES TO CLASSIFYING ORGANISMS Taxonomy: names and classifies species and groups into a broader category Reproductive barrier: a biological feature of the organism to keep it from interbreeding o Prezygotic Barriers (prevent mating or fertilization) Temporal isolation :breeding occurs during different seasons Habitat isolation: species live in same area but not the same type of place Behavioral isolation: little or no sexual attraction Mechanical isolation: structural differences between sex organs Gametic isolation: male/female gametes die before uniting o Postzygote Barriers: (prevent development of fertile adults) Reduced hybrid viability: hybrids fail to develop to reach sexual maturity Reduced hybrid fertility: hybrids fail to produce functional gametes Hybrid breakdown: offspring of hybrids are weak or infertile Allopatric speciation: populations separated by a geographic barrier o Mountain range, large lake subsiding into smaller lakes) o This sometimes leads to a new species however in order for allocation speciation to occur
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Unformatted text preview: changes in the gene pole must produce reproductive isolation. • Sympatric speciaition: a new species arises in the same geographic area a a parent species. occurs from: o Polyploids: species cells have two sets of chromosomes o Sexual selection o Habitat differentiation • Homologous: fundamental structures that function the same way because they came from the common ancestor • Analogy: two things similar in appearance not belonging to the same ancestor. They look the same because they adapted to the same environment. • Binomial nomenclature: two part naming system genus and species o Example: felis cactus (first letter capital, italicized) • Hierarchy categories: o Species->genus->family-> order->class->phylum->kingdom->domain (bacteria, eukaryo, smallest--------------------------------------------------------------------------------largest...
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